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C / North , state Library ^ 

North Carolina 

Department op Conservation and Development 

Hargrove Bowles, Jr., Director 

Division of Mineral Resources 
Jasper L. Stuckey, State Geologist 

Bulletin 76 

Geology and Mineral Resources of Moore County, 

North Carolina 

James F. Conley 



North Carolina 
Department of Conservation and Development 

Hargrove Bowles, Jr., Director 

Division of Mineral Resources 
Jasper L. Stuckey, State Geologist 

Bulletin 76 

Geology and Mineral Resources of Moore County, 

North Carolina 

James F. Conley 




Members of the Board of Conservation and Development 

Governor Terry Sanford, Chairman Raleigh 

R. Walker Martin, Vice Chairman Raleigh 

John M. Akers Gastonia 

Dr. Mott P. Blair Siler City 

Robert E. Bryan : Goldsboro 

Mrs. B. F. Bullard . Raleigh 

Daniel D. Cameron : . Wilmington 

Mrs. Fred Y. Campbell r Waynesville 

Dr. John Dees I Burgaw 

William P. Elliott, Sr Marion 

E. Hervey Evans, Jr Laurinburg 

E. R. Evans Ahoskie 

E. D. Gaskins Monroe 

Andrew Gennett Asheville 

Luther W. Gurkin, Jr Plymouth 

Woody R. Hampton , Sylva 

Charles E. Hayworth , High Point 

Gordon C. Hunter ___.__Roxboro 

Roger P. Kavenagh, Jr ... Greensboro 

Carl G. McGraw Charlotte 

Lorimer W. Midgett Elizabeth City 

Ernest E. Parker, Jr Southport 

R. A. Pool .' Clinton 

Eric W. Rodgers : Scotland Neck 

Robert W. Scott Haw River 

W. Eugene Simmons Tarboro 

James A. Singleton Red Springs 

J. Bernard Stein Fayetteville 

Charles B. Wade, Jr Winston-Salem 


Letter of Transmittal 

Raleigh, North Carolina 
May 2, 1962 

To His Excellency, Honorable Terry Sanford 
Governor of North Carolina 


I have the honor to submit herewith manuscript for publica- 
tion as Bulletin 76, "Geology and Mineral Resources of Moore 
County, North Carolina", by James F. Conley. 

This report contains the results of detailed investigations of 
the geology and mineral resources of Moore County and should 
be of value to those interested in the geology and mineral re- 
sources of Moore County and adjacent areas. 

Respectfully submitted, 

Hargrove Bowles, Jr. 



Introduction 1 

Location and area 1 

Purpose and scope 1 

Geography ^ 1 

Culture 1 

Climate 1 

Physiography 2 

Topography 2 

Drainage 2 


Geology - 2 

The Carolina Slate Belt 2 

Stratigraphy 3 

Lower volcanic sequence 4 

Felsic tuffs and flows - 4 

Mafic tuffs 4 

Andesite tuffs 5 

Volcanic-sedimentary sequence 6 

Slates 6 

Environment of deposition 6 

Structure 7 

Folds 7 

Troy anticlinorium 7 

Minor folds 7 

Faults 7 

Longitudinal faults 7 

Glendon fault 7 

Robbins fault 8 

Other longitudinal faults 8 

Cross faults 8 



The Deep River Triassic Basin 8 

Stratigraphy 9 

Pekin formation 9 

Cumnock formation 9 

Sanford formation 10 

Unnamed upper conglomerate 10 

Triassic diabase 10 

Environment of deposition 11 

Structure 12 

Folds 12 

Faults 12 

Border faults 12 

Jonesboro fault 12 

Western border fault 12 

Cross faults 12 

Longitudinal faults 13 

The formation of the Deep River basin 13 

The Coastal Plain 13 

Stratigraphy :. .13 

Upper Cretaceous Tuscaloosa formation 13 

Lower member 14 

Upper member : 15 

Environment of deposition 16 

Tertiary Pinehurst formation 18 

Stratigraphy 18 

Environment of deposition 19 

Structure 19 

Other Deposits . 20 

Terrace gravel 20 

Alluvium 20 

Economic Geology 20 

Pyrophyllite 20 

Pyrophyllite mines and prospects 20 

McConnell prospect 21 

Jackson prospect 21 



Bates mine 21 

Phillips and Womble mine 21 

White mine : 21 

Jones prospect 21 

Currie prospect 21 

Standard Mineral Company mine 21 

Dry Creek mine 22 

Ruff mine ' 22 

Hallison prospect 22 

Sanders prospect 22 

Origin of pyrophyllite — : 22 

Rock types 23 

Faults . . 23 

Outline of pyrophyllite bodies 23 

Mineralogy 23 

Zoning 23 

Discussions and conclusions 24 

Gold -24 

Mode of occurrence 24 

Gold mines 24 

Clegg mine 24 

Wright mine 24 

Cagle mine 25 

Red Hill mine : 25 

Allen mine 25 

Burns mine 25 

Brown mine : 25 

Shields mine 25 

California mine _ 25 

Dry Hollow placer mine 26 

Jenkins mine : 26 

Richardson mine 26 

Monroe mine 26 

Bell mine . 26 

Ritter mine 26 

Donaldson mine , 26 



Copper 27 

Coal i 27 

Quality and reserves .1 27 

Coal mines 27 

Murchison mine _- 27 

Garner mine 27 

Black shale and black band 28 

Stone 28 

Sand and gravel 28 

Pinehurst formation 28 

Terrace gravel 28 

Upper member of Tuscaloosa formation 28 

Triassic gravel 28 

High silica quartz : 29 

Vein quartz : -29 

Unconsolidated quartz sands and gravels 29 

Clay . 29 

Residual kaolin in the Carolina Slate Belt 29 

McEnnis pit 29 

William pit 30 

McDuffy pit 30 

Other clay in the Carolina Slate Belt 30 

Pottery clay 30 

Hancock pit 30 

Cagle mine clay 30 

Sedimentary clay in the Deep River basin 30 

Sedimentary kaolin in upper member of the Tuscaloosa 

formation 31 

Acknowledgements 31 

References cited 38 




Plate 1. Geologic Map of Moore County in pocket 

Plate 2. Geologic Map of Pyrophyllite Deposits, Glendon in pocket 

Plate 3. Geologic Map, Standard Mineral Company Pyrophyllite 

mine, Robbins in pocket 

Plate 4. White Pyrophyllite Mine, Glendon in pocket 

Plate 5. Geologic Map of Dry Creek Pyrophyllite mine in pocket 

Plate 6. Photomicrographs of Typical Volcanic Rocks page 32 

Plate 7. Photographs of Typical Rock outcrops page 34 

Plate 8. Photographs of Typical Rock outcrops page 36 




James F. Conley 

Location and Area 

Moore County is located in the south central part 
of North Carolina, between 35 degrees 04 minutes 
and 35 degrees 31 minutes north latitude and 79 
degrees 12 minutes and 79 degrees 46 minutes west 
longitude. The county is irregular in outline with 
much of its boundary following streams and other 
natural features. It is bounded on the north by 
Randolph and Chatham counties ; on the east by Lee, 
Harnett, and Cumberland counties ; and on the west 
by Richmond and Montgomery counties. Scotland 
County lies immediately to the south, but has a 
common boundary at only one point. Moore County 
contains about 862 square miles and ranks 18th in 
size among the 100 counties of the State. 

Purpose and Scope 

A geologic mapping program was initiated in 
Moore County, North Carolina in the fall of 1959 
by the North Carolina Division of Mineral Resources. 
The purpose of this research program was : (1) map 
the geology in as much detail as time permitted; 
(2) locate both the active and abandoned mines, 
study their economic possibilities, mode of origin 
and relationship to the regional structure; and (3) 
attempt to locate new mineral deposits which might 
be of economic value. 

Only the southern half of ,the county is covered 
by topographic maps. Therefore, a base map for 
the northern half was prepared from aerial photo- 
graphs at a scale of one inch equals one mile. The 
geology was plotted directly on contact prints and 
transferred to the base map. 

In the area underlain by rocks of the Carolina 
Slate Belt, outcrops vary from poor to non-existant 
and in several instances saprolite and soils had to 
be relied on to deduce the underlying rock type. 

Outcrops in the Coastal Plain are better exposed, 
except in a few instances where drainage is poorly 
developed. The northern part of the Triassic Deep 
River basin was mapped by John A. Rinemund 
(1955) during the period 1946-1949. Portions of 

his map are reproduced as part of the geologic map 
accompanying this report, with only minor changes. 


Moore County was established on July 4, 1784, 
from land which originally comprised part of west- 
ern Cumberland County. An additional tract bound- 
ed by James Creek, Little River, Hector Creek, and 
the Harnett County line was transferred from Hoke 
County in 1959. The county was named in honor of 
Alfred Moore, a military colonel in the American 
Revolution. Carthage, located near the center of the 
county, was established as county seat in 1803 and 
has served in that capacity since. Other principal 
towns include Aberdeen, Pinehurst, Robbins and 
Southern Pines. 

The county is served by three railroads. The Sea- 
board Air Line Railroad passes through the towns 
of Cameron, Vass, Southern Pines, Aberdeen and 
Pinebluff and is the main north-south route. The 
Norfolk Southern Railway has two east-west lines 
which serve the area. One crosses the northern 
part of the county passing through Glendon and 
Robbins, and the other, located in the southern part, 
passes through Aberdeen, Pinehurst and West End. 
From Aberdeen, southward, the area is served by 
the Rockfish and Aberdeen Railroad. A network of 
federal, state and county roads provide easy access 
to all parts of the county. In addition, regularly 
scheduled airlines operate out of Knollwood Airport, 
located a few miles north of Southern Pines. 

Moore County has a well balanced economy and a 
great variety of income-producing resources. Among 
the major of these are agriculture, mining, recrea- 
tion, and retail and wholesale trades. 


Moore County is noted for its hot summers and 
mild winters, which make it a "mecca" for winter 
golfing and equestrian sports. The mean annual 
temperature is 61.1° F. The summer temperature 
averages 73.2° F; the winter temperature raverages 


50.2° F. The average precipitation is 44.61 inches, 
most of which occurs in the spring and early sum- 
mer (U. S. Weather Bureau, 1961). 


Moore County contains parts of two of the major 
physiographic provinces of the United States. The 
northern two-fifths of the county lies within the 
Piedmont Plateau province, locally referred to as 
the "clay country", whereas the southern three- 
fifths of the area is in the Sandhills subdivision of 
the Atlantic Coastal Plain province. 

In the area where the softer unconsolidated ma- 
terials of the Coastal Plain come in contact with the 
more resistant rocks of the Piedmont, there is a 
relatively narrow transition zone which in other 
places is marked by an abrupt change in relief. This 
contact is referred to as the Fall Line or Fall Zone. 
The Fall Zone occurs in Moore County as an uneven 
contact from near White Hill at the northeastern 
boundary westward through Carthage to a point on 
the western boundary about two miles north of 
Highway N. C. 211. In contrast to other areas, the 
Fall Zone in Moore County is a conspicuous topo- 
graphic ridge which forms a drainage divide be- 
tween northeast and southeast flowing streams. 

A third physiographic subdivision is the Triassic 
basin which lies in a northeast-southwest direction 
across the county. This depression or trough is 
about 10 miles wide and is tarecable from the north- 
east corner of the county southeastward to Harris, 
where it is covered by the sediments of the Coastal 
Plain. Even where covered by the Coastal Plain, 
the area underlain by Triassic sediments is lower 
than the surrounding countryside. The Triassic 
basin contains relatively soft sedimentary rocks 
which are much less resistant to erosion and have 
been removed at a more rapid rate than the crystal- 
line rocks of the uplands to the west. 


Moore County is an area of contrasting topography. 
The uplands, underlain by crystalline rocks range in 
elevation from 600 feet above sea level in the north- 
western part of the county to only 300 feet in the 
northeastern part. Topography is typical of the 
Piedmont with rounded hills and V-shaped valleys. 
The hilltops rise from 75 to 100 feet above the 
valley floors, with a few rising as high as 150 feet. 

The Triassic basin ranges in elevation from 250 
to 500 feet. The eastern and western rims of the 
Triassic basin lie as much as 250 feet above its 
floor and form prominent escarpments. From the 
escarpments the land slopes rapidly to the basin 

floor. Northeast trending ridges of low relief occur 
in the basin. These usually do not rise more than 
75 feet above the valleys. Valleys in the Triassic 
basin are wider than in the uplands and some con- 
tain floodplain deposits. 

The average elevation of the Coastal Plain is 
about 400 feet; however, it ranges from 500 feet 
along its northern limits to less than 190 feet in 
river valleys at the extreme eastern tip of the county. 
The Coastal Plain is sculptured into alternating 
flat-topped ridges with convex sides that rise as 
much as 150 feet above broad, flat valleys filled with 
floodplain deposits. This topography is typical of 
the Sandhills region. Relief is considerably greater 
than found in the Coastal Plain outside of the Sand- 


Moore County is drained by three major streams; 
Deep River, Little River, and Drowning Creek. 
Deep River enters the county along its north-central 
border and flows in a semicircle leaving the county 
at its northeastern corner. It drains almost all of 
the northern half of the area and has several major 
tributaries, including Bear Creek, Buffalo Creek, 
Falls Creek, McLendons Creek and Governors Creek. 

Little River heads up in central Moore County 
and flows eastward draining the central and east- 
central part of the area. Its main tributaries are 
Crane Creek, James Creek and Nicks Creek. 

The southwestern and southern boundary of the 
county is formed by Drowning Creek, which also 
drains this area. Its major tributaries are Jackson 
Creek, Horse Creek, and Aberdeen Creek. 


The Carolina Slate Belt 

The northwestern part of Moore County is under- 
lain by low-grade metamorphic rocks of volcanic 
and sedimentary origin. The area in which these 
rocks crop out is known as the Carolina Slate Belt. 
The name Carolina Slate Belt was first applied by 
Nitze and Hanna in 1896. This name is a misnomer 
and should be replaced because the predominant 
rocks are not slates, and they do not form a belt. 
West of Moore County they are dominantly argil- 
lites, but in the county they are mostly phyllites 
with some slates. Although the outcrop area ap- 
pears as a belt, it is now known that these rocks 
extend under the Coastal Plain for a considerable 
distance. This is indicated by oil-test wells drilled 
in Bladen and Pender Counties, which bottomed in 
these rocks. 

In 1822 Olmstead described novaculite, slate, 
hornstone, and talc from areas now known to be 
underlain by the Carolina Slate Belt. In 1825 he 
referred to the "Great Slate Formation", which 
"passes quite across the state from northeast to 
southwest, covering more or less the counties of 
Person, Orange, Chatham, Randolph, Montgomery, 
Cabarrus, Anson and Mecklenburg". He described 
the rocks of this "formation" as consisting of clay 
slate or argillite porphyry, soapstone, serpentine, 
greenstone and whetstone. Eaton (1820) in a re- 
port on gold in North Carolina, added "talcose 
slates" to the list of rocks occurring in the belt. He 
stated that they occur in association with novacu- 

Ebenezer Emmons (1856) probably one of the 
most competent geologists of his time, placed these 
rocks in his Taconic system which he divided into an 
upper and a lower member. He considered these 
rocks amongst the oldest in this county. The upper 
member consisted of clay slates, chloritic sandstones, 
cherty beds, flagstones, and brecciated conglom- 
erates. The lower member consisted of talcose 
slates, white and brown quartzites and (on his cross 
section, Plate 14, he added) conglomerate. 

Emmons, not recognizing volcanic rocks in his 
series, considered them water-laid sediments. The 
divisions of his system into an upper and a lower 
member is used, with modifications, in this report. 

Kerr (1875) described the rocks of the Carolina 
Slate Belt and proposed that they were of Huronian 
age. Williams (1894) first recognized volcanic rocks 
in the Carolina Slate Belt. Becker (1895) publish- 
ed a paper recognizing the presence of volcanic 
rocks in the sequence and proposed that they were 
Algoncian age. 

Nitze and Hanna (1896) recognized volcanic - 
rocks interbedded with the slates that they proposed 
were laid down during times of volcanic outbursts, 
followed by inactivity during which time slates were 
deposited. They noted that some of the rocks had 
true slaty cleavage, whereas others were truly schis- 
tose. They believed these rocks were altered by 

Weed and Watson (1906) studied the Virgilina 
copper deposits and proposed that the country rocks 
were metamorphosed andesites. The age was thought 
to be Precambrian. 

Laney (1910) described the Gold Hill Mining 
District of North Carolina. In this report he divid- 
ed the rocks into slates with interbedded felsic and 
mafic flows and tuffs. He stated that the slates 
differ from the fine, dense tuffs only in the amount 
of land waste they contain, indicating that the slates, 

in part, were derived from volcanic material. He 
did not define "land waste", nor did he explain how 
it might be recognized. He stated that the rocks all 
show much silicification and are only locally sheared. 
He proposed that a major fault, the Gold Hill fault, 
separated the igneous rocks to the west from the 
slates. Pogue (1910) described the Cid Mining 
District, and Laney (1917) described the Virgilina 
Mining District. Interpretations in these reports 
are, in general, repetitions of ideas as expressed in 
Laney's report of 1910. 

Stuckey (1928) presented a report which included 
a geologic map of the Deep River Region of Moore 
County. He divided these rocks into slates, acid 
tuffs, rhyolites, volcanic breccias, and andesite flows 
and tuffs. He noted that the schistosity dipped to 
the northwest and interpreted the structure as close- 
ly compressed synclinorium with the axes of the 
folds parallel to the strike of the formations. He 
stated (p. 23) "The minor folds dip steeply to the 
northwest side of the troughs and flatten out to the 
east. The synclinal troughs pitch and flatten out in 
places as is indicated by the way the slate bands, 
which are all synclinal in structure, occur in long 
narrow lenses often pinching out. This pinching 
and flattening indicates some cross folding". He 
noted the slates seem to have consolidated readily 
and to have folded as normal sediments; whereas, 
the tuffs and breccias remained in a state of -open 
texture and tended to mash and shear instead of 
folding. He stated that there is little evidence for 
faulting, although minor displacements amounting 
to a few inches were noted. Stuckey, from a com- 
parison of his investigation with work by Laney and 
Pogue, concluded that the rocks of the whole slate 
belt are of the same general types. He noted that 
metamorphism is not uniform throughout the area. 

Theismeyer and Storm (1938) studied slates near 
Chapel Hill that showed fine-graded bedding, and 
proposed that they represented seasonal banding. 
Theismeyer (1939) proposed that similar sediments 
found in Faquier County, Virginia, were deposited 
in pro-glacial lakes during late Precambrian and 
early Cambrian times. The bedding is thought to 
be seasonal "varves". In addition he proposed that 
"the Hiwassee slates of Tennessee and the slates in 
North Carolina, near Chapel Hill, belong to the same 
category; even may have been deposited more or 
less contemporaneously". 


The rocks of the Carolina Slate Belt have been 
divided, by Conley (1959) and Stromquist and Con- 
ley (1959) in the areas covered by the Albemarle 

and Denton 15-minute quadrangles, into a lower 
unit composed of volcanic rocks, a middle unit com- 
posed of volcanic and sedimentary rocks, and an 
upper unit of volcanic rocks which unconformably 
overlies the two lower units. In Moore County only 
the lower and middle units appear to be present; 
however, some rhyolites in the area might belong 
to the upper unit. The exact stratigraphic relation- 
ships of some of the rocks in the county are in doubt 
because of the gradational nature of the contacts, a 
condition further complicated by intense folding and 
faulting and lack of outcrops. 

Lower Volcanic Sequence 

Felsic Tuffs and Flows : Rocks of the Lower Vol- 
canic sequence are the oldest rocks exposed in the 
county. This unit on the order of 3500 feet thick, 
is composed predominately of fine, usually sheared, 
felsic crystal tuffs. The tuffs vary in color from 
white or light cream to light grey. They weather 
white and sometimes white weathering rinds are ob- 
served on fresh rock. Topsoil developed on these 
rocks is a cream-colored silty loam; the subsoil is a 
white clay loam. The rocks are usually massive. 
However, in a small area on Mill Creek west of 
West Philadelphia, they contain obscure bedding 

In thin section the tuffs are composed of quartz, 
orthoclase, and plagioclase, probably albite in com- 
position, in a fine groundmass of what appears to be 
cryptocrystalline quartz accompanied by sericite and 
kaolinite. Feldspars appear as clouded, angular 
lath-shaped fragments partly replaced by sericite. 
The sheared appearance is much more apparent in 
thin section than in hand specimen. The quartz 
grains are crushed and drawn out in the direction 
of shearing. The groundmass has a banded appear- 
ance resulting from segregation of kaolinite and 
sericite along planes of shear. 

Interbedded with the felsic crystal tuffs are felsic 
lithic-crystal tuffs, rhyolites, and mafic crystal tuffs. 
The contact between the felsic crystal tuffs and the 
felsic lithic-crystal tuffs usually is gradational with 
well defined contacts being the exception. The lithic- 
crystal tuffs have the same matrix composition as 
the crystal tuffs, but in addition contain grey por- 
phyritic, rhyolite fragments which range from one 
eighth of an inch to more than six inches in diameter. 
These fragments range from well rounded to highly 
angular masses ; others appear to be flattened. The 
groundmass is now composed of cryptocrystalline 
quartz, sericite and kaolinite. The phenocrysts con- 
sist of quartz and lath-shaped orthoclase and pla- 
gioclase feldspars, the latter varying in composition 

from albite to oligoclase. Some of the tuffs are 
welded and exhibit flow lines. They could easily 
be mistaken for rhyolites if it were not for the pres- 
ence of lithic fragments. The flow lines usually are 
well defined in thin section due to the development 
of sericite along the flow structures. 

The rhyolites occur in small outcrops in the ex- 
treme northwestern corner of the county near West 
Philadelphia and on the hill above the Dry Creek 
pyrophyllite mine. Rhyolites are difficuilt to differ- 
entiate from flow tuffs, even in unmetamorphosed 
rocks, and these may be flow tuffs. They are classi- 
fied as rhyolites on the basis of swirl flow banding, 
euhedral feldspar phenocrysts, and the absence of 
either broken crystal of lithic fragments. 

The rhyolites are porphyritic, containing visible 
feldspars up to one-sixteenth of an inch in length. 
They are light grey in color, weathering to chalky 
white on the surface. They are exceedingly dense, 
emitting a metallic ring when struck with a hammer. 
This rock usually is not sheared even when tuffs on 
either side of some outcrops have suffered consid- 
erable shearing. They contain prominent swirl- 
banded flow lines which are accentuated by weather- 
ing. Because of their resistance to weathering the 
rhyolites form elongate hills. Soils developed on 
the rhyolite are extremely shallow, ranging from 
12 to 15 inches in thickness. 

In thin section, the rhyolites are composed of ag- 
gregates of unoriented, interlocking, angular, quartz 
grains; untwinned orthoclase; and albite and carls- 
bad twinned oligoclase. The groundmass is exceed- 
ingly fine and can not be resolved to individual crys- 
tals, but appears to be an interlocking network of 
cryptocrystalline quartz, sericite and kaolinite. 

Mafic Tuffs: The mafic tuffs shown on the geo- 
logic map (Plate 1) are not limited to any one rock 
sequence, but are found interbedded with the felsic 
tuffs, and andesitic tuffs of the Lower Volcanic 
sequence as well as slates of the overlying Volcanic- 
Sedimentary sequence. However, mafic tuffs are 
more frequently associated with the andesitic tuffs. 
Evidently, outburst of mafic ejecta occurred over a 
considerable span of geologic time. Because of the 
lithologic similarity of the mafic tuffs they are all 
shown, for convenience, as the same color on the 

These rocks in general are andesitic in composi- 
tion, but contain some material that might be classi- 
fied as basalt. They are composed of lithic frag- 
ments ranging from one-sixteenth of an inch up to 
eighteen inches in diameter, and crystal fragments, 
ranging from microscopic up to one fourth of an 
inch in diameter. From place to place, the ratio of 

crystals to lithic fragments is exceedingly variable, 
as is the size of the elastics making up the rock. 

The tuffs usually are sheared. They have a grey- 
ish-green or olive-green color when fresh, becoming 
dun-brown on weathering from the oxidation of 
their iron. Topsoils developed on these rocks are 
tan-colored silty loams; the subsoils are usually 
dark-brown to chocolate-brown colored heavy clay 

In thin section the matrix of the rock appears to 
be made up almost entirely of chlorite bands strung 
out parallel to shearing. Feldspars have been alter- 
ed to sericite and kaolinite. In highly sheared 
rocks, phenocrysts have, been rolled parallel to schis- 
tosity and have an augen-like appearance. One thin 
section contained quartz masses that appear to be 
crushed, unoriented, and strung out parallel to 
schistosity. These quartz masses might be second- 
ary fillings of vessicles. 

The lithic fragments appear to be of different 
composition than the matrix of the rock. Some 
specimens are composed of a mesh of lath-shaped 
feldspar crystals about 0.02 of a millimeter in length 
with chlorite filling the interstices. Augite, not al- 
tered to chlorite, is present in rare isolated frag- 
ments. The groundmass of some of the fragments 
is composed of sericite and kaolinite rather than 

In general, the rock is not bedded. However, in 
the area north of High Falls the mafic tuffs contain 
numerous interbeds of graywacke. These interbeds 
range from a few tens of feet to more than over a 
hundred feet in thickness. The graywacke is green- 
ish-grey when fresh, becoming light-brown on 
weathering. It is composed of quartz, feldspar, rock 
fragments, and a small quantity of argillaceous ma- 
terial. The rock exhibits graded bedding consisting 
of coarse sand, rock fragments up to two centimeters 
across, and intermixed fine sand at the base, which 
grades upward into fine sand at the top of the bed. 
The rock fragments, so prominent in hand specimen, 
are reduced in thin section to aggregate of kaolinite, 
chlorite and sericite. This suggests that the frag- 
ments are completely altered and are only recogniz- 
able in hand specimen by the preservation of relic 

Andesite Tuffs : The andesite tuffs are about 2500 
feet thick and are composed of interbedded crystal 
tuffs, lithic-crystal tuffs, argillaceous lithic conglom- 
erates, argillaceous beds and questionable flows. 
These tuffs are highly susceptible to shearing and 
usually exhibit axial plane cleavage. Many of them 
are sheared and pass into phyllites in which primary 
fragments are flattened and elongated in the direc- 

tion of movement. The andesite tuffs have a dis- 
tinctive greyish-purple color when fresh, and on 
weathering become a lighter purple. This coloring 
is due to primary hematite in the rock. Topsoil de- 
veloped on the andesite tuffs is a dark, red-clay loam 
and the subsoil is a dark-maroon to maroonish-pur- 
ple colored heavy plastic clay. , 

Crystal fragments in the more tuffaceous phases 
rarely exceed 40 percent of the composition of the 
rock. They consist almost entirely of lath-shaped 
feldspar fragments and rare euhedral crystals, rang- 
ing in length from microscopic to three millimeters. 
The feldspars are highly sericitized and are both 
carlsbad and albite twinned. Gross composition is ap- 
proximately that of andesine. In addition to feld- 
spar, lath-shaped masses of chlorite are also present. 
This chlorite probably represents altered amphibole 
and pyroxene. Quartz is rare in the crystal tuffs; 
however, one questionable flow tuff consisted of 30 
percent of almost spherical quartz grains ranging 
up to two millimeters across. This is probably sec- 
ondary quartz filling vessicles. The interstices are 
filled with hematite which obliterates the ground- 

Lithic-crystal tuffs are readily differentiated from 
argillaceous lithic conglomerate. The fragments 
are angular and the matrix contains crystal frag- 
ments in the lithic tuffs ; whereas, the fragments are 
rounded and the matrix is argillaceous in the lithic 
conglomerates. The rock fragments in both the tuffs 
and conglomerates are similar in composition. They 
rarely exceed two inches in diameter in the conglom- 
erates, but range up to ten inches across in the tuffs. 
Megoscopically these fragments are of two types. 
One is a massive aphanite, and the other is a crystal 
flow rock. Microscopically the aphanite fragments 
consist almost entirely of sericite and hematite; the 
flow-rock fragments appear as an aggregate of 
unoriented feldspar laths averaging about 0.02 of a 
millimeter in length in a matrix of hematite. Aside 
from flow lines and crystals, the original composi- 
tion and texture of the flow rock fragments are 
masked by hematite. 

The groundmass of the tuffs is so fine grained that 
it can not be resolved under the microscope. It 
appears to be composed predominately of elongate 
masses of opaque hematite, sericite, chlorite, and 
kaolinite. Epidote occurs sparingly in some thin 
sections. The matrix of the argillaceous rocks is 
even finer grained and also is obscured by hematite. 

Near the top of the stratigraphic section the ande- 
site tuffs become more argillaceous and bedding is 
observed more frequently. As the contact with the 

overlying slates is approached, graded bedding, so 
common in the slates, begins to predominate. 

Volcanic-Sedimentary Sequence 

Slates : The slates are about 6,000 feet thick and 
form the basal unit of the Volcanic-Sedimentary se- 
quence? They attain the greatest elevation of any 
stratigraphic unit found in Moore County? There 
is no sharp contact between this rock and the under- 
lying andesitic tuffs, but there is a gradational strati- 
graphic change from tuff to slate. Fine graded bed- 
ding, resembling varved bedding, is a characteristic 
of the slates. The bedding planes vary from one- 
sixteenth to one-fourth of an inch in thickness. Axial 
plane cleavage usually is more pronounced than bed- 
ding. The fresh slate is dark grey in color and 
weathers to ocherous reds and yellows. Topsoils are 
usually light brown-colored silts; whereas, subsoils 
are light red silty loams. 

In thin section graded bedding is easily observed. 
It consists of a silt layer at the bottom which grades 
upward into clay layer. The silt sized particles pre- 
dominately consist of quartz grains as well as some 
feldspar and what were probably ferromagnesian 
minerals, now chloritized. The clay layers are now 
predominately sericite. The slates outcropping in 
the eastern part of the county, along the western 
contact with the Triassic basin, contain interbeds of 
graywacke sandstone, which in places make up as 
much as fifty percent of the rock. These graywackes 
have a different composition and texture than those 
interbedded with the mafic tuffs. They are greyish- 
green when fresh and weather light maroon. They 
usually appear to be massively bedded; however, 
closer inspection reveals thin bedding planes and 
graded bedding ranging in size from sand at the bot- 
tom to silt at the top. The rock is composed of equal 
parts of chloritized rock fragments and quartz with 
occasional grains of albite-twinned sericitized feld- 
spar which ranges in composition from oligoclase to 
andesine. The rock varies in composition from the 
base to the top of the graded beds. The matrix fill- 
ing the interstices between the sandgrains in the 
lower parts of the beds consist of about equal parts 
sericite and kaolinite with a trace of chlorite. As 
the beds become finer grained toward the top, chlo- 
rite increases until the upper silt fraction of the 
bedding is composed of approximately sixty percent 
chlorite, fifteen percent sericite, fifteen percent kao- 
linite and ten percent quartz. 

Environment of Deposition 

The Lower Volcanic sequence is thought to be vol- 
canic ejecta deposited on land. This is indicated by 


the general angularity of lithic and crystal frag- 
ments and the general lack of sorting in the sedi- 

Pillow structures, which only form in subaqueous 
flows, are not present in the interbedded rhyolites, 
even though flow lines are well preserved. If pillow 
structures had developed, they should be as well pre- 
served as the flow lines. 

The presence of welded flow tuffs also suggest 
subaerial deposition because it is unlikely these rocks 
could have retained enough heat to flow and weld 
if they were deposited in water. The tuffs on Mill 
Creek contain bedding and might be water laid. 
However, air laid tuffs often contain bedding and 
are deposited in water. The presence of graywacke 
interbeds in the mafic tuffs suggest an aqueous en- 
vironment and turbidity currents. These gray- 
wackes were probably, for the most part, derived 
from reworking of the mafic tuffs. The coarse mafic- 
lithic breccias and mafic crystal tuffs, so commonly 
interbedded with the andesitic tuffs, were evidently 
blown out of volcanoes and deposited directly in 
water without reworking. 

The numerous rounded lithic fragments, bedding 
planes, and fissle graded bedding suggest that the 
andesite tuffs were water laid. The presence of 
inter-bedded lithic-crystal tuffs and argillaceous 
lithic conglomerates of essentially the same chemical 
composition suggests that these rocks were derived 
from the same source. One probably represents vol- 
canic ejecta deposited directly in water without re- 
working, and the other a reworked sediment. 

The gradual increase in graded bedding toward 
the contact with the overlying slates suggest a 
change in environment from shallow to deep water. 
The andesite tuffs are thought to represent a transi- 
tion unit and a transition environment between the 
terrestial tuffs and flows of the Lower Volcanic 
sequence and the deep-water sediments of the over- 
lying Volcanic-Sedimentary sequence. 

The slates were deposited in quiet water, below 
wave base. This is indicated by the fine graded 
bedding which could only develop in quiet waters. 

The mechanism which produces fine graded bed- 
ding is not thoroughly understood. Theismeyer 
(1939) proposed that the slates were varved sedi- 
ments deposited in pro-glacial lakes during late Pre- 
cambrian or early Cambrian times. No glacial de- 
posits have been identified in the rocks of the Caro- 
lina Slate Belt and this theory is not acceptable. 

It has been suggested that varve-like graded bed- 
ding can only occur in water of low salinity because 
of flocculation. This is indicated by Fraser's (1929) 
experimental studies which showed the maximum 

salinity permitting the formation of varves of coarse 
clay to be about one fiftieth that of sea water. Petti- 
john (1949) stated that graded bedding occurs in 
sediments from Precambrian to the present and sug- 
gested that flocculation by sea water is a doubtful 
concept. Kuenen and Menard (1952) believed that 
graded bedding in graywackes is caused by turbidity 
currents and can occur in normal sea water. 

Two methods are proposed which might produce 
graded bedding in the slates. One postulates that 
the sediments were derived from silt and clay sized 
ash blown out of volcanoes. The larger sized par- 
ticles would immediately settle out of the air allow- 
ing them to be deposited in the water first. The 
smaller sized particles Would be thrown higher in the 
air and, buffeted by air current and take longer to 
settle out. This would produce a graded sediment 
due to air sorting before the material reached the 
water. The second method postulates that the grad- 
ed bedding was produced by turbidity currents. 
During rainstorms, streams would become charged 
with sediments. Upon reaching the basin of depo- 
sition, the water charged with sediments would be 
more dense than water in the basin; and would 
move slowly down the sub-aqueous slope as a weak 
turbidity current. As this current moved outward 
it would deposit a silt layer. As it lost its turbidity 
and velocity, the clay sized particles would gradually 
settle out on top of the silt layer. The presence of 
graywacke sandstones containing graded bedding 
adds strength to the turbidity current theory, be- 
cause graywackes are now usually regarded as' tur- 
bidity current deposits (Pettijohn 1957). 


Troy Anticlinorium : The major structure in 
Moore County is the Troy Anticlinorium, which 
trends in a northeast-southwest direction and 
plunges toward the southwest. This structure has 
been traced from southern Montgomery County to 
northern Randolph County. The anticlinorium is 
over 30 miles wide, lying between the Pee Dee River 
on the west and western Moore County in the east. 
The axis of the fold is located near Troy, Montgom- 
ery County, and the southeastern limb occupies 
northwestern Moore County. The felsic tuffs of 
the Lower Volcanic sequence crop out in the center 
of the structure, whereas the overlying andesite tuffs 
and slates dip off its southeastern flank. 

Minor Folds : A series of usually double-plunging 
anticlines and synclines, varying in wavelengths 
from one to three miles are developed on the south- 
east flank of the Troy anticlinorium. These folds are 

overturned to the southeast and cleavage developed 
parellel to the axes of the folds dips monotonously 
to the northwest at angles varying from fifty-five to 
seventy degrees. Schistosity and shearing increased 
from northwest to southeast across the county. In 
the northwestern part of the county the Lower Vol- 
canic sequence dips under the overlying rocks but 
reappears in the center of anticlinal folds across the 
central and southwestern part of the county. The 
slates, the youngest Carolina Slate Belt stratigraphic 
unit found in Moore County, occupy the center of a 
number of overturned synclines in the central and 
eastern part of the area. The slates are contorted 
into a series of undulating open folds varying in 
wavelength from ten to thirty feet across. These 
folds probably developed due to plastic flowage 
within the slates during regional folding. 


Faults can be divided into two groups; namely, 
northeast trending longitudinal faults developed 
parallel to the axes of folds, and northwest trending 
cross faults. Because of slippage parallel to the 
axes of overturned folds, many of the longitudinal 
faults are reverse in nature. The zones of displace- 
ment along the major northeast trending faults 
usually have been intruded by quartz veins and are 
occasionally silicified and mineralized. The quartz 
veins and silicified zones are invariably sheared, 
indicating movement occurred along these faults 
after intrusion of the quartz veins and silicifica- 

The cross faults have displaced the longitudinal 
faults in a number of places, clearly indicating that 
they developed after the longitudinal faults. Major 
movement along the cross faults was strike slip- 
page. Along the Deep River in the northern part 
of the county these cross faults can be traced into 
the Triassic basin. The cross faults have displaced 
the Carolina Slate Belt units as much as a mile 
along the strike, but have displaced Triassic rocks 
only a few hundred feet. This indicates the major 
movement took place in pre-Triassic time with a 
later movement of much smaller scale taking place 
after deposition of the Triassic sediments. 

Longitudinal Faults 

Glendon Fault: One of the major longitudinal 
faults in the area is the Glendon fault. It lies ap- 
proximately three miles northwest of Glendon and 
can be traced from the northern county line south- 
eastward to just north of Robbins. It strikes north 
60 degrees and dips 60 to 70 degrees northwest. 

Drag folds indicate that it is a reverse fault, with 
movement from northwest to southeast. It is offset 
by several cross faults along its length. A wide 
mineralized shear zone containing workable pyro- 
phyllite deposits accompanies the fault. Movement 
along the fault has placed the andesite tuffs in con- 
tact with the slates, except north of McConnell, 
where it has placed felsic tuffs underlying the ande- 
site tuffs in contact with the slates. This suggests 
that the throw in this area must be in the order of 
several thousand feet. 

Robbins fault: The Robbins fault passes through 
the western city limits of Robbins and is traceable 
from approximately one mile north of Robbins, 
southeastward to approximately one mile northeast 
of West Philadelphia. It trends north 60 degrees 
east and dips northwest at approximately fifty de- 
grees. Drag folds indicate that it too is reverse in 
nature and the hanging wall to the northwest moved 
upward over the footwall to the southeast. The 
shear zone accompanying this fault is as much as 
a mile wide and contains pyrophyllite and gold de- 
posits. The reverse nature of this fault and pres- 
ence of pyrophyllite deposits along its trace sug- 
gests that it is the same type as the Glendon fault. 
In fact, if the strike of the Glendon fault were ex- 
tended to the southwest (see Plate 1), it would in- 
tersect the Robbins fault south of Robbins. 

Other Longitudinal faults : A horst structure, ly- 
ing between two north sixty-five degrees east trend- 
ing vertical faults, occurs in the area between Put- 
nam and Hallison. This structure places felsic tuffs 
of the Lower Volcanic sequence in contact with 
slates of the Volcanic-Sedimentary sequence. The 
andesite tuffs lying stratigraphically between the 
felsic tuffs and the slates are omitted, indicating a 
throw in the order of several thousand feet. This 
horst is adjoined on the northwest by a graben 
which lies between the fault north of Putnam and 
the Glendon fault. 

Cross faults : Vertically dipping northwest trend- 
ing normal cross faults, which strike from thirty to 
seventy degrees northwest, occur throughout the 
central and eastern part of the county. Some of 
these appear to be hinge faults; whereas others 
show strike slippage. A number of strike-slip faults 
along Deep River have a horizontal displacement 
varying from half a mile to over a mile. The Deep 
River has entrenched along these faults producing 
a series of parallel meanders. 

Southeast of Spies a pair of northwest-trending 
faults have produced a graben structure, downf ault- 
ing andesite tuffs against felsic tuffs. 

A number of transverse faults have been intruded 
by diabase dikes. The dikes evidently were emplaced 
along zones of weakness; however, it is not under- 
stood why they preferred northwest trending faults 
and generally ignored those trending northeast. 


The Deep River Triassic basin lies in a northeast- 
southwest direction across Moore County. In the 
northern part of the county it is bounded on either 
side by the Carolina Slate Belt. In the southern 
part of the county it. is overlapped by Coastal Plain 

Emmons (1852) on the basis of fossil and litho- 
logic evidence, concluded that the sediments of the 
Deep River basin were Triassic age. However, in 
1856 he proposed that the lower sandstones and coal 
beds were of Permian age, because of the presence 
of Thecodant saurian teeth in some of the shales 
associated with the coal beds. Overlying sandstones 
were still considered Triassic age. 

Redfield (1856) found that the rocks in New Jer- 
sey, Eastern Pennsylvania and in the Connecticut 
Valley were Upper Triassic age and proposed that 
they be named the Newark group. He found that 
fossil vertebrates in Emmons collection were identi- 
cal to those occurring in the northern basins and cor- 
related sediments in the Deep River basin with the 
Newark group. 

Rocks of the Deep River basin consist of red, 
maroon, reddish-grey fanglomerates, conglomerates, 
sandstones and siltstones. In addition the basin 
contains coal beds and associated grey and black 
shales, mudstones, siltstones and sandstones. 

Emmons (1852) subdivided the stratigraphy of 
the Deep River Basin into three units. These are : 

3. Sandstones, soft and hard with freestones, 
grindstone grits, and superior conglomerates ; crop- 
ping out along the eastern edge of the basin. 

2. Coal beds and black slates with their subordi- 
nate beds and seams ; cropping out in- the center of 
the basin. 

1. Inferior conglomerates and sandstones below 
the coal beds and black slates; cropping out along 
the western edge of the basin. 

This was a logical conclusion because the strata 
dip toward the eastern edge of the basin. Although 
he devised this classification, Emmons (1856) recog- 
nized marked resemblance between certain strata 
on the eastern and western part of the basin and 
suggested that they might be the same unit. 

In 1856 he repeated this classification in his text; 

however, on the map accompanying the report, in- 
serted an additional unit which he called "Salines" 
between the middle and upper units. Campbell and 
Kimball (1923) stated that the "Salines" are nothing 
more than drab shales, containing salt, above the 
coal beds, and belong with the middle division. 

Campbell and Kimball (1923) mapped and named 
Emmons' three units calling the lowest the Pekin 
formation, the middle the Cumnock formation and 
the upper the Sanford formation. 

Prouty (1931) discussed the formation of the 
Deep River basin. He proposed that it was caused 
by downwarping aided by development of an eastern 
border fault. 

Reinemund (1955) published a detailed study of 
the structure and stratigraphy of the Deep River 
basin with special emphasis on the economic geol- 


Pekin Formation: Campbell and Kimball (1923) 
named the basal Triassic unit, the Pekin formation 
after a small town in southern Montgomery County. 
No type section or type locality was established, but 
they stated that it is best exposed on the road trend- 
ing due east from Mt. Gilead. The formation under- 
lies the western third of the Deep River basin in 
Moore County and is exposed along the western bor- 
der of the basin from Deep River southward to the 
Coastal Plain overlap. The formation is estimated 
to be from 1750 to 1800 feet thick. Its basal part is 
supposed to rest on the eroded- surface of the Caro- 
lina Slate Belt, (Reinemund 1955). To the south, 
along Drowning Creek, the western border of the 
basin is flanked by a lithic f anglomerate composed of 
angular to subrounded rock fragments, derived from 
the Carolina Slate Belt, ranging from one inch to 
over a foot in diameter. 

An elongate conglomerate bed, lenticular in out- 
line, resembling a shoestring sand lies along the 
western border of the northern part of the basin. 
This bed was extensively quarried before 1900 to 
make millstones, and is known locally as the Mill- 
stone Grit. 

The bed varies in thickness from 2 to 30 feet, and 
is composed of quartz pebbles, varying from one to 
three inches in diameter, in a matrix of coarse sand. 
The conglomerate is well cemented and the pebbles 
can be broken without being dislodged from the 

A paleosoil underlies the Millstone Grit in an out- 
crop on Highway N. C. 22 at the old Parkwood quar- 
ry. It is a grey, carbonaceous, partly-kaolinized 
clay containing numerous root impressions. 

East of the western border, the Pekin formation 
is composed of lenticular beds of red, brownish-red, 
and maroonish-purple clayey siltstones, sand- 
stones and occasional beds of brown or grey, medium 
to coarse grained, cross bedded, arkosic sandstones 
and conglomerates. Rare thin beds of claystone are 
also present. Many of the sandstones contain root 
impressions on weathered surfaces. 

Toward the center of the basin the sediments be- 
come finer grained, with siltstones predominating. 
To the southeast the sediments become progressively 
coarser, and frequently contain more arkosic beds 
as well as coarse-grained, grey-colored, cross-bedded 

Cumnock Formation: Campbell and Kimball 
(1923) named the middle coal-bearing Triassic beds 
the Cumnock formation after the Cumnock mine. 
The type section was located in the main shaft of 
the mine. The Cumnock formation is exposed in 
northern Moore County from Deep River southward 
to the Coastal Plain overlap. On the road between 
Glendon and Carthage it-is repeated four times by 

In the north-central part of the basin the Cum- 
nock formation is 750 to 800 feet thick and consists 
of coal, black and grey shales, with thin sandstone 
beds in the middle and upper part (Reinemund 
1955). The Pekin-Cumnock contact was placed by 
Emmons at the top of the last redbed below the coal 
beds, and the Cumnock-Sanford contact at the first 
redbed above the coal. The two workable coal beds 
occur about 200 feet above the base of the Cumnock 
formation. The lower coal bed, called the Gulf 
seam, has been found only at the Carolina and Black 
Diamond mines and lies from 25 to 45 feet below 
the second, or Cumnock bed (Reinemund 1955) . 

The Cumnock formation and associated coal beds 
is the thickest near the center of the basin, thinning 
rapidly toward the edges. The formation is best 
developed at Carbonton and Gulf and apparently 
thins rapidly to the southwest. This is indicated by 
the Cumnock coal bed which is reported to be 42 
inches thick at Cumnock, but only 14 inches thick 
at an exposure at the Gardner mine. Campbell and 
Kimball (1923) noted the area, two miles wide, 
northwest of Carthage in which the Cumnock 
formation does not crop out. They postulated that 
this might be caused by either lateral gradation of 
the grey Cumnock strata into the red beds of the 
Pekin and Sanford formations, or down faulting, 
but seemed to favor faulting as the explanation. 

The Cumnock formation dips under the Coastal 
Plain sediments four miles southwest of Carthage, 
and has not been observed in outcrop south of the 

point. An exception to this might be the grey silt- 
stone and mudstone exposed in a stream valley one 
and one-half miles southwest of Eagle Springs, on 
the road to Samarcand Manor. Whether or not this 
is actually the Cumnock formation or a variation of 
the Pekin formation is open to question, because this 
exposure lies considerably north of a projection of 
the last Cumnock outcrop. It is thought that the 
reason the Cumnock formation does not crop out 
south of Carthage is because it is downf aulted along 
the continuation of the Governors Creek fault. The 
Cumnock formation reappears further to the south- 
west as indicated by a coal prospect located in Mont- 
gomery County near the Moore County line. 

Sanford Formation: The Sanford formation was 
named by Campbell and Kimbell (1923) after the 
town of Sanford and included all rocks above the 
Cumnock formation. The Sanford formation con- 
formably overlies the Cumnock formation, and in 
Moore County this contact might best be described 
as gradational. The Sanford formation is estimated 
to be from 3500 to 4000 feet thick (Reinemund 
1955) and covers the eastern half of the Deep River 
basin. Reinemund (1955) stated that the Sanford 
formation contained few distinctive beds which can 
be traced over any appreciable distance. The beds 
are lenticular and laterally gradational. Measured 
sections would only apply to rocks in the immediate 
vicinity and correlation is not feasible over wide 

The Sanford formation similar to the Pekin 
formation, is predominately a sequence of redbeds. 
It also is composed of sandstones, siltstones, con- 
glomerate and fanglomerate. To the southwest, the 
formation becomes progressively coarser and con- 
tains more frequently occurring beds of coarse 
arkosic sandstone. 

Fanglomerate crops out, in a belt varying in 
width from three-fourths to over a mile wide, along 
the southeastern edge of the basin. It is composed 
of unsorted rock fragments ranging from one-half 
an inch to more than a foot in diameter. These frag- 
ments were derived from rocks of the Carolina Slate 
Belt and usually are poorly indurated. Material 
filling the interstices between the fragments usually 
is composed of red and maroon sandstones and silt- 
stones. The fanglomerate shows very poor bedding ; 
however, the general dip of the rock can be ascer- 
tained by observing the orientation of tabular rock 
fragments. From the eastern border and toward 
the center of the basin, the fanglomerat grades lat- 
erally into conglomerate. In addition to the fan- 
glomerate, the Sanford formation contains well- 
defined lenticular beds of quartz conglomerate which 

are sometimes cross-bedded. These lenses usually 
grade into sandstones. 

Beyond the border of the basin the majority of 
the Sanford formation consists of interbedded red 
and maroon siltstones and sandstones. Claystones 
and shales are almost totally absent. The coarser 
sandstones are most prevalent along the eastern edge 
of the basin with siltstones becoming predominant 
toward the center of the basin. These sandstones 
are similar to the sandstones of the Pekin forma- 
tion, along the northwestern edge of the basin and 
contain numerous root impressions. 

Unnamed Upper Conglomerate: Northeast of 
Carthage a grey conglomerate lies on the eroded sur- 
face of the Sanford formation (see Plate 1). Prob- 
ably the best exposure is in a new road cut on a 
hill rising above the east bank of the east fork of 
Big Governor's Creek. The conglomerate consists 
of well rounded quartz pebbles, ranging in size from 
one-half to two inches in diameter, intermixed with 
a minor amount of coarse angular sand. In addi- 
tion it contains minor lenses of siltstone. The rock 
is poorly consolidated and usually is not stained 
with the red iron oxides as generally is the case with 
Triassic rocks. The Triassic age of the conglom- 
erate is well established because it has been intruded 
by a diabase dike. 

After observing this conglomerate, J. L. Stuckey 
informed the author that similar gravels occur near 
Apex, North Carolina. The Apex locality was visit- 
ed by Reinemund and Stuckey in 1948, at which 
time they reached the conclusion that the gravels 
were of Triassic age and appeared to be younger 
than the Sanford formation. 

It might be argued that these gravels are part of 
the Sanford formation because unconformable beds 
within the formation are relatively common. This 
possibility certainly cannot be ruled out. However, 
a better explanation is that these gravels probably 
are post Sanford floodplain deposits as indicated by 
the preservation of old stream channels. 

Triassic Diabase : Diabase dikes generally regard- 
ed to have been emplaced in late Triassic time, have 
intruded both the Deep River Triassic basin and the 
Carolina Slate Belt. In the Deep River basin a num- 
ber of dikes have intruded the Sanford formation 
northwest of White Hill. Dikes and large sills have 
intruded the Cumnock formation northeast and 
southeast of Glendon. Dikes occasionally occur in 
the Pekin formation west of Carthage. Diabase 
dikes have been mapped in the Carolina Slate Belt 
and are most numerous in the area between High 
Falls and Parkwood. 


The diabase dikes in general trend northwest, 
with a few exceptions trending either north or 
northeast. These dikes dip either vertically or 
slightly to the northeast. They range in thickness 
from one to several tens of feet. Diabase dikes oc- 
curring in the Carolina Slate Belt are usually smaller 
than those in Triassic sediments. This leads to the 
conclusion that the magma could more easily intrude 
and incorporate the less resistant Triassic sedi- 
ments. The existence of low refractory shales and 
coal in the Cumnock formation might explain why 
large sills occur in this unit. Even where they in- 
trude Triassic sediments, the baked zones on either 
side of the diabases are rarely over twice the thick- 
ness of the dikes, and- in the Carolina Slate Belt 
these zones do not exceed a few inches. The baked 
zones usually are dark grey at the contact with dia- 
base, becoming reddish grey away from the contact. 

The diabases are exceedingly susceptible to spher- 
oidal weathering producing rusty boulders scattered 
through the surficial soil. Soil, developed on weath- 
ered diabase is a conspicuous dark-yellow brown, but 
occasionally is a dark-chocolate brown. 

During the field investigation for this report little 
attention was given to the petrography of the dia- 
base dikes. Reinemund (1955) studied the diabases 
in detail. He found that they contain the primary 
minerals olivine, plagioclase feldspars, varying from 
andesine to bytownite, augite, orthoclase and quartz ; 
the accessory minerals magnetite, ilmenite, pyrite, 
chromite, titanite, apatite, and basaltic hornblend; 
and secondary minerals antigorite, limonite, horn- 
blende, calcite, and magnetite. Olivine is usually 
present in varying amounts. The rock usually con- 
tains as much as two-thirds plagioclase and as much 
as one-third augite. In addition to normal diabase, 
gabbroic varieties composed of one-half olivine and 
one-third plagioclase and dioritic diabase composed 
of one-half plagioclase and one-third augite are 

Envioronment of Deposition 

Kryniene (1950) expressed the opinion that red 
color of the Triassic sediments was due to erosion of 
red soils in the source area. Reinemund (1955) 
essentially agreed with this, and added that the dark 
brown and red colors of the Pekin and Sanford 
formations indicated that the sediments were de- 
posited in a non-reducing environment. 

During the time of deposition of both the Pekin 
and Sanford formations fluvial conditions existed in 
the Deep River basin. At this time both the border 
faults had well defined scraps. Talus material ac- 
cumulated at the base of these scarps producing the 

fanglomerates found in the Pekin formation along 
the western edge of the basin and the Sanford 
formation along its eastern edge. 

From the edges toward the center of the basin, 
sediments of both formations become progressively 
finer grained. Reinemund (1955) stated that sedi- 
ments of the Pekin and Sanford formations were 
deposited by streams, as indicated by the cross bed- 
ding and the channel like form of some of the coarse 
grained sediments. Root impressions, commonly 
found in the sandstones of these formations, sug- 
gest that much of the area between the major stress 
channels was marshland. General coarsening of the 
grain size of the sediments to the southwest indicate 
that drainage within the basin was in that direction. 

Gradual sinking of the basin probably occurred 
during sedimentation by slight movements along the 
border faults, causing rejuvination from time to 
time of streams flowing into the basin. During the 
latter part of Pekin sedimentation the scarp of the 
Western border fault in the northern part of the 
county did not stand at elevations great enough to 
produce talus deposits. At this time, a stream, in- 
cised along the fault scarp, deposited the Millstone 

The occurrence of the Cumnock formation, with 
its black shale and coal beds in the center of the 
basin, represents a change from stream and shallow 
marshes, with rapid sedimentation along the mar- 
gins of the basin ; to a shallow lake, with slow sedi- 
mentation in the center of the basin. A shallow body 
of standing water could support a lush growth of 
vegetation. After death the organic remains would 
fall to the bottom of the lake and be protected from 
oxidization. Extremely slow sedimentation would 
allow accumulation of organic material of thickness 
and purity to form workable coal beds. 

After the basin had filled with sediments, streams 
meandered over its surface depositing the unnamed, 
upper gravels which overly the Sanford formation. 

It is suggested that deposition of parts of the 
Pekin, Cumnock and Sanford formations, as map- 
ped, might have occurred simultaneously. Only in 
areas of outcropping Cumnock formation can the 
names Pekin and Sanford formations be used as 
time-stratigraphic units. In these areas redbeds 
underlying and in direct contact with the Cumnock 
formation can definitely be called the Pekin forma- 
tion, and inversely, the redbeds overlying the Cum- 
nock formation belong to the Sanford formation. 
Because grey shales and coal beds of the Cumnock 
formation are limited to the center of the basin, 
redbeds deposited along the eastern and western 
margins of the basin during Cumnock time are most 


likely mapped as Sanford and Pekin formations re- 
spectively. As no key horizons exist along the mar- 
gins of the basin, it would be best to regard what 
has been mapped in these areas as Pekin and San- 
ford formations as sedimentary facies rather than 
time-stratigraphic units. 


Folds: The Deep River basin has been described 
by Campbell and Kimball (1923) and by Reinemund 
(1955) as a synclinal basin. In this paper the basin 
is considered a graben structure in which the beds 
dip monoclinally to the south-east. The syncline 
which Reinemund (1955) regarded as the axis of 
the basin occurs northeast of White Hill. Another 
small syncline lies along the west bank of McLen- 
don's Creek, where Highway N. C. 27 crosses the 
creek. Approximately eight tenths of a mile north 
of this area is located the axis of a small anticline. 
Folds of large magnitude have not been observed 
within the Deep River basin in Moore County. 

Faults: Reinemund (1955) found three ages of 
faults in the Deep River basin. The oldest is the 
Jonesboro fault or eastern border fault, which re- 
mained active during sedimentation ; the cross faults 
are next in age, developing after sedimentation had 
ceased ; and the longitudinal faults are the youngest. 
This is indicated by the fact that the cross faults 
have displaced the Jonesboro fault, but not the longi- 
tudinal faults. In turn, the longitudinal faults have 
offset the cross faults, but are not offset by the cross 

Border Faults 

Jonesboro Fault : The Jonesboro fault was named 
by Campbell and Kimball (1925) after the town of 
Jonesboro. It forms the eastern contact of the basin 
placing Triassic sediments against the Carolina 
Slate Belt. Reinemund (1955) estimated that the 
maximum vertical displacement along this fault is on 
the order of 6000 to 8000 feet. The fault strikes 
north 35 degrees east in the northeastern part of the 
county, but changes to a more easterly direction 
south of Eastwood, where it assumes a strike of 
about north 60 degrees east. The fault plane dips to 
the northwest at an angle of about 65 degrees. 
Reinemund (1955) observed that the Jonesboro fault 
is displaced by cross faults, although no displace- 
ment along the fault was noted in Moore County. 

Western Border Fault : The Western Border fault 
forms the western contact of the basin and also 
places Triassic sediments against the Carolina Slate 
Belt. Campbell and Kimball (1923) did not recog- 

nize the Western Border fault, and Reinemund 
(1955, Plate 1) has only mapped a few discontinu- 
ous faults along the western border of the basin. 
Authors of both these papers suggested the sedi- 
ments wedge out to the northwest. They proposed 
the sediments were once more extensive in that 
direction, but have been eroded away. This concept 
might be true of other areas of the Deep River Basin 
but could not be applied in Moore County. 

If the Triassic sediments wedged out to the west, 
it would be expected that streams would have eroded 
through the Triassic mantle exposing rocks underly- 
ing the basin, producing a scalloped contact. The 
contact is not scalloped, it is an essentially straight 
line, suggesting a fault contact. In addition, the 
fanglomerate, exposed along the western border of 
the basin in the southern part of the county, indi- 
cates that the fault scarp in this area was once a 
significant topographic feature. 

Campbell and Kimball (1923) and Reinemund 
(1955) considered the Millstone Grit a basal con- 
glomerate. The buried soil under the Millstone Grit 
indicates that it is not a basal conglomerate and 
that Triassic sediments had been deposited and 
weathered before the conglomerate was laid down. 

The presence of this fault is further indicated by 
a gravity survey of the Deep River- Wadesboro Basin 
conducted by Mann and Zablocki (1961). They 
stated that in places the basin has graben like fea- 
tures, but suggest that throw of the Western Border 
fault in the Deep River basin is less than that of the 
Jonesboro fault. 

The Western Border fault is best exposed at the 
bridge across Deep River, north of Glendon, on the 
Glendon-Carthage road. It strikes north 30 degrees 
east and dips to the southeast at 60 degrees. North 
of Eagle Springs the fault is bent to a more westerly 
direction and strikes north 55 degrees east. The 
vertical displacement is unknown but it is thought 
to be in the same order of magnitude as that of the 
Jonesboro fault during time of sedimentation. How- 
ever, post depositional movement along the Jones- 
boro fault exceeded that of the Western border fault 
which remained stable, causing the strata to dip to 
the southeast. The Western Border fault has been 
displaced in numerous places by cross faults through- 
out its exposed area. 

Cross Faults : Northwest trending cross faults are 
found throughout the Deep River basin. As pre- 
viously mentioned, along the Western border some 
of these faults begin in the Carolina Slate Belt and 
end in Triassic sediments. The major displacement 
has been parallel to the strike. Vertical displace- 
ment is usually minor being on the order of a few 


tens of feet and occasionally ranging over one-hun- 
dred feet. Reinemund (1955) noted the faults ex- 
tend to great depth because many of them have been 
intruded by diabase dikes. In Moore County the 
cross faults trend about north forty degrees west; 
however, in rare instances, they trend from north 
twenty degrees west to almost due north. The fault 
planes are usually at high angles approaching verti- 
cal and generally dip to the northeast. 

Longitudinal Faults : A series of northeast trend- 
ing step faults, including the Deep River, Governors 
Creek, and Crawleys Creek faults, lie in a northeast 
direction across the center of the Deep River basin. 
These faults have repeatedly exposed the Cumnock 
formation in the northeastern part of the county. 
The fault planes dip to the northwest at angles 
varying from 20 degrees to thirty degrees. The ver- 
tical displacement varies from five-hundred to over 
two-thousand feet. Displacement gradually becomes 
less to the southeast and all of the faults except the 
Governors Creek fault die out before they have an 
opportunity to dip under Coastal Plain sediments. 

It is thought that the Governors Creek fault con- - 
tinues across the southern part of the basin, and is 
a rotational fault with its hinge line near Carthage. 
The Western block moved down northeast of the 
hinge line, but up southwest of the hinge line. This 
explains why, along this fault line, the Pekin forma- 
tion is in direct contact with the Sanford formation 
in the southern part of the county and the Cumnock 
formation in the northern part of the county. 

The Formation of the Deep River Basin 

Campbell and Kimball (1923) concluded that the 
Deep River basin was caused by downwarping of the 
earth's crust. Sediments were deposited in this 
trough causing it to continue to sink. After down- 
warping and sedimentation ceased, the basin was 

Prouty (1931) agreed that the basin was caused 
by downwarping, but believed the Jonesboro fault 
developed soon after sedimentation began. He pos- 
tulated that movement along this fault continued 
sporadically until sedimentation ceased. This pro- 
duced a wedge shaped trough, with the thickest sedi- 
ments next to the fault, becoming progressively 
thinner away from the fault. The last movement 
along the Jonesboro fault, as well as the development 
of faults in the basin occurred after deposition. 

The present investigation indicates the Deep 
River basin in Moore County is a rift valley caused 
by downfaulting along the Jonesboro and Western 
Border faults. These faults are thought to have 

existed in Pre-Triassic time and were reactivated in 
Triassic time producing the basin. The sequence of 
event which produced the Deep River basin in 
Moore County are as follows : 

1. Removement along the Pre-Triassic Jonesboro 
and Western Border faults, during Newark time, 
creating a graben trough. 

2. Disruption of drainage and beginning of sedi- 

3. Continued movement along the border faults 
and possible fractional movement along the cross 
faults with continued sedimentation. 

4. Stabilization of the faults with cessation of 

5. Removement along the Jonesboro fault, drop- 
ping down the eastern side of the basin and tilting 
the strata to the southeast, accompanied by active 
movement along cross faults. 

6. Development of longitudinal tension faults in 
the center of the basin. 

7. Intrusion of the diabase dikes, predominately 
along northwest trending cross faults in both the 
Carolina Slate Belt and Deep River Triassic basin. 



Upper Cretaceous Tuscaloosa Formation: The 
Tuscaloosa formation is the basal Coastal Plain unit 
in Moore County. In this report it is divided into a 
lower and an upper member. The Tuscaloosa forma- 
tion was named by Smith and Johnson in 1887 after 
the city of Tuscaloosa, Alabama. L. W. Stephenson 
(1907) subdivided the Cretaceous of North Caro- 
lina into three formations. He called the basal unit 
the Cape Fear formation. He considered it Lower 
Cretaceous in age and correlated it with the Patux- 
ent formation of Virginia. He named the overlying 
unit the Bladen formation, (Black Creek formation 
in present terminology) and correlated it with the 
Tuscaloosa formation of Alabama. In 1912 he re- 
named the Cape Fear formation the Patuxent forma- 
tion and correlated it, on lithology, with the Patux- 
ent of Virginia and Maryland. 

Sloan (1904) named the sands and clays of sup- 
posedly Lower-Cretaceous age in South Carolina, 
the Middendorf Formation. However, Berry (1914) 
studied plant fossils from this formation and found 
that they were actually of Upper Cretaceous age. 
Cooke (1936) correlated the Middendorf formations 


of South Carolina with the Tuscaloosa formation of 
Alabama and extended the Tuscaloosa into North 
Carolina. Horace G. Richards (1950) described the 
Tuscaloosa formation in North Carolina and stated 
that it occurred in southern Moore County. 

W. B. Spangler (1950) from a study of cuttings 
obtained from oil-test wells drilled on the North 
Carolina Coast, found that the subsurface contained 
both lower and upper Cretaceous beds. He applied 
the name Tuscaloosa formation only to beds of Eagle 
Ford-Woodbine age. P. M. Brown (1958) also 
found rocks of Woodbine and Eagle Ford age in the 
subsurface stratigraphy of the North Carolina 
Coastal Plain. These he assigned to the Tuscaloosa 
(?) formation. 

S. D. Heron (1958) mapped the basal Cretaceous 
outcrops between the Cape Fear River in North 
Carolina and the Lynches River in South Carolina. 
He returned to the Classifications of Stephenson and 
Sloan, dividing the Tuscaloosa formation into the 
Lower Cretaceous ( ?) Cape Fear formation and the 
Upper Cretaceous Middendorf Formation. He nam- 
ed the lower part of the Black Creek formation, be- 
low the Snow Hill member, the Bladen member. 
Heron (1960) stated, "The Middendorf is considered 
the updip facies of the Bladen member of the Black 
Creek formation and both of these formations have 
overlapped the Cape Fear formation." 

Groot, Penny and Groot (1961) collected samples 
containing plant microfossils from the Tuscaloosa 
formation of the Atlantic Coastal Plain, including 
one sample from the basal part of the lower member 
of the Tuscaloosa formation in Moore County. 

They found that the Tuscaloosa formation of the 
Atlantic Coastal Plain is Upper Cretaceous age, but 
slightly older than Senonian, although some Senon- 
ian species are present. 

Lower Member: The lower member of the Tus- 
caloosa formation is the basal unit of the Coastal 
Plain sediments in Moore County. It rests uncon- 
formably on both the Carolina Slate Belt and the 
Triassic Deep River basin. This member is best 
exposed in the southeastern part of the county, 
where overlying younger sediments have been strip- 
ped away by erosion. It is rarely exposed in the 
south-central and southwestern parts of the county, 
where it usually is covered by overlying sediments. 

The base of the lower member is exposed in a 
road cut on the west side of Highway U.S. 15-501 
on the south side of Little River. At this locality 
it is underlain by the Triassic Sanford formation. 
The basal part of the member is a grey carbonaceous 
clay containing lignitized wood. The section at this 
exposure is as follows : 

Section near juunction of Highway 15-501 and Little Rixer 

Top of section covered 
Cretaceous (Tuscaloosa formation member) Thickness 

6. Weathered reddish brown clay.— 3' 

5. Dark grey plastic carbonaceous clay 3' 

4. Fine greyish green sand : 1' 

3. Dark grey plastic carbonaceous clay, containing 
liginitized wood 4' 

2. Basal gravel _ '. 6' 

Triassic (Sanford formation) 

1. Fanglomerate 3' 

Base of exposure 

The gray carbonaceous clay of the basal part of 
the lower member is again exposed in the west bank 
of a paved road on the south side of Nicks Creek, 
approximately one mile north of Murdocksville. This 
locality contains both wood fragments and amber. 

The type locality of the lower member of the Tus- 
caloosa formation is an exposure along the Seaboard 
Air Line Railroad in the center of the town of Vass. 
The section at this locality is as follows : 

Section at Vass 
Recent Thickness 

7. Soil zone, weathered and leached, being colored 
sand with occasional gravel beds 6' 

Cretaceous (Tuscaloosa formation lower member) 

6. Oxidized, mottled light olive and red clay 4' 

5. Oxidized, iron cemented, greyish-olive sandstone 1' 

4. Oxidized, light olive silty clay 8' 

3. Oxidized, feldspathic, micaceous clayey course 
olive sand, with occasional gravel beds stained 

by hematite 6' 

2. Oxidized, micaceous olive clay, containing some 

silt and sand 3' 

1. Unoxidized, micaceous, light grass green sandy clay.. 6' 

Base of exposure 

A water well, located approximately one-fourth of 
a mile northwest of the type locality, drilled for the 
town of Vass by C. C. Hildebrand and Company, 
record the following section : 

Log of Water Well at Vass 


8. White and yellow sand 4' 

7. Yellow sand clay 16' 

6. Light yellow and light grey sand clay.. 5' 

5. Light grey sandy clay - 10' 

4. Light brown sandy clay 10' 

3. Water bearing sand - 35' 

2. Light brown sand clay 15' 

1. Basement rocks of the Carolina Slate Belt 364' 

An exposure southeast of Lobelia on the south 
bank of Little River at Morrison, Bridge, Hoke 
County, is as follows : 


Section along Little River at Morrison Bridge 

Cretaceous (Tuscaloosa formation, lower member) 

2. Festooned cross-bedded micaceous, feldspathic, grey- 
ish white and light grey, poorly consolidated sand, 
containing lignitized logs, grey clay balls, and heavy 
mineral streaks. (These streaks are composed of as 
much as 50 percent pyrope garnet. The lignitized 
logs are partly replaced by plastic grey clay in which 
growth rings are preserved) 5' 

1. Unoxidized light grass green, micaceous, sandy clay 1' 

River level 

Two exposures of well cemented coarse sandstone 
occur in the county. One is located northwest of 
Taylor Town on the north bank of Joes Fork Creek, 
and the other on the north shore of a private lake, 
just above Hog Island intersection. Judging from 
the elevation of the exposure, neither of these out- 
crops could be far above the base of the unit. The 
two sandstones are identical in appearance and, if 
they could be correlated, might be of stratigraphic 
significance. These sections are as follows : 

Section along Joes Fork Oreek northwest of Taylor Town 

Cretacious (Tuscaloosa formation, lower member) Thickness 

3. Oxidized reddish brown clay 3' 

2. Coarse grained, well cemented greyish brown 
sandstone 2' 

1. Oxidized light grey clay. 2' 

Base of exposure 

Section: at Hog Island 

Cretaceous (Tuscaloosa formation, upper member) Thickness 

5. Basal quartz gravel 2' 

(Tuscaloosa formation, lower member) 

4. Dark grey clay mottled with secondary hematite____ 1.5' 

3. Dark grey clay 3.5' 

2. Coarse to medium grained, well cemented 

greyish brown sandstone 2' 

1. Dark grey silty clay ...„ 3' 

Base of section 

A complete stratigraphic section of the lower mem- 
ber of the Tuscaloosa formation in Moore County is 
not available, but from what is known, it can be 
stated that the basal part consists of grey carbonace- 
ous clays containing lignitized plant remains and 
amber, with interbedded thin, grey and olive sand 
beds. Above the base, the clays become less carbon- 
aceous and lighter grey in color ; finally giving way 
to light olive clayey sand beds containing thin clay 
beds. Some of the sands exhibit faint graded bed- 
ding and cross bedding. Although a few of the clay 
beds are lenticular in outline, most persist over the 
exposed outcrop area. In the subsurface some beds 
can be correlated on electric logs traced over wide 
areas (P. M. Brown, personal communication). 

Upper- Member: The upper member of the Tusca- 
loosa formation unconformably overlaps the lower 
member as well as segments of the Carolina Slate 
Belt and Deep River basin. The outer limits of the 
upper member is an irregular contact which can be 
traced in a northeast-southwest direction across the 
county. Typical exposures are found in the area 
around Harris Crossroads; however, measure sec- 
tions in this unit are of questionable value because 
of the extreme variable nature of the sediments. For 
this reason, a type section of the upper member of 
the Tuscaloosa formation has not been established. 

The base of the upper member is exposed at a 
number of localities along the margin of the Coastal 
Plain. It is an unconsolidated gravel composed of 
rounded quartz, varying from one to six inches in 
diameter. These gravels were probably derived 
from quartz veins in the Carolina Slate Belt. This 
basal gravel is thin, usually not over six feet thick, 
and in some places is totally absent. The basal 
gravels become finer grained and diminish in thick- 
ness to the southeast and might completely disappear 
down dip. The gravels have a bleached appearance, 
and might have been subjected to intensive weather- 
ing, which removed iron staining, before transporta- 
tion. Though some of the cobbles show faint pink 
staining, the absence of iron contrasts with both 
vein quartz in the Carolina Slate Belt and Recent 
terrace deposits. 

The matrix of the basal gravel is composed of 
kaolinitic clay and clayey sand. Small quantities of 
heavy minerals are interspersed through the matrix. 

Above the basal gravel, the upper member of the 
Tuscaloosa formation consists of alternating uncon- 
solidated beds of white clay and clayey sand. The 
clay beds pinch and swell and sometimes die out. 
These beds are composed of white plastic kaolinite, 
which, if weathered, is often stained pink by iron 
oxide. Quartz grains up to one millimeter in diam- 
eter are randomly scattered throughout the clays, 
and sometimes make up as much as five percent of 
the deposit. These quartz grains are usually very 
angular, almost glass clear, and show little or no 
rounding and frosting. In addition to the quartz, 
the clays also contain mica shards. 

The sand beds usually are more persistent than the 
clay beds, although they also tend to thicken, thin 
and occasionally pinch out. Most of the sand beds 
are relatively massive and are only faintly bedded. 
Some are crossbedded and others exhibit graded bed- 
ding. A few of these deposits contain occasional fine 
gravel interbeds. Kaolinitic clay galls, varying 
from one-half to one and one-half inches in diameter, 
occur sparingly in the gravel beds and along promi- 


nent bedding planes. The sands are composed of 
medium to coarse, sub-rounded quartz grains with 
mica shards, feldspar grains, and rare heavy min- 
eral streaks along bedding planes. The sands are 
bonded together by kaolinitic clay. This clay, which 
is always present, at times makes up as much as 
twenty-five percent of the sediment. 

Thin beds of hematite up to one inch thick occur 
as a precipitate from groundwater on the upper sur- 
faces of many of the clay beds and along prominent 
bedding planes in the sand beds. 

Hematite and occasionally limonite precipitates, 
have oftentimes cemented the base of the upper mem- 
ber of the Tuscaloosa formation. These deposits are 
as much as six inches thick. 

Environment of Deposition : The lower member 
of the Tuscaloosa formation was probably deposited 
in a marine environment. Although marine fossils 
are lacking in Moore County, they have been recover- 
ed from well cuttings down dip (P. M. Brown, per- 
sonal communication). The persistence of the beds 
and general rarity of cross bedding suggest these 
sediments were laid down under marine conditions. 
The gradual change from grey carbonaceous clays 
at the base to green and olive clayey sands and thin 
grass green clay beds above the base, probably rep- 
resents a change from lagoonal, with stagnant con- 
ditions, to marine environment, brought about by 
transgression of the Lower Tuscaloosa sea. 

Other evidence for the marine origin of the lower 
member of the Tuscaloosa formation is suggested by 
Heron's (1960) study of exposed basal Cretaceous 
clays of North and South Carolina. He found that 
known marine sediments contain abundant montmo- 
rillinite, whereas sediments regarded as non-marine 
contain kaolinite. He found that the Cape Fear 
formation (lower member, Tuscaloosa formation) 
contained predominately montmorillinite with some 
kaolinite, suggesting that it is a marine sediment. 
The samples collected from the lower member of 
the Tuscaloosa formation of Moore County were 
X-ray analyzed by Heron at the request of the 
author. These were found to contain a majority of 
montmorillinite over kaolinite (S. D. Heron, writ- 
ten communications). Although montmorillinite as 
an indicator of marine origin is still open to question 
by some authors ; the present investigation suggests 
that it is applicable in this case. 

The environment of deposition for the upper mem- 
ber of the Tuscaloosa formation has been discussed 
in the literature. L. W. Stephenson (1923) believed 
the Patuxent formation to be of alluvial origin, 
deposited by overloaded streams crossing the Coastal 

Plain of that period, which existed between the coast 
line to the east and the highlands to the west. 

Veatch (1908) stated that the almost pure kaolin- 
ite beds in the Tuscaloosa formation were clearly of 
sedimentary origin. He postulated that these sedi- 
ments were derived from deeply-weathered crystal- 
line rocks of the Piedmont in which the feldspar and 
other aluminus minerals had altered to kaolinite. 
During Cretaceous time, these weathered rocks were 
rapidly eroded and deposited along the sea as alluvial 
fans and at the mouths of streams as deltas. On 
these deltas fresh water lakes were formed and filled 
with reworked kaolinite clay. As these lakes were 
filled, others formed. 

Newman (1927) agreed that the clays were de- 
rived from weathered rocks of the Piedmont, but 
postulated that they were leached to essentially pure 
kaolin in situ in pre-Cambrian time, under the in- 
fluence of mild climate with heavy rainfall, aided by 
acid conditions created by decaying vegetation. This 
weathered material was then eroded, transported by 
streams, and deposited in a marine environment. 

Kesler (1957) agreed with Veatch's deltaic origin, 
but added that the sediments were derived from a 
youthful erosion surface. He postulated that the 
kaolins were formed by weathering of feldspars 
after deposition of the sediments, and were concen- 
trated by later reworking. 

Heron (1960) stated "The sediments of the Mid- 
dendorf formation (upper member Tuscaloosa 
formation) probably represent an environment that 
was dominately fluvial". He suggested that the rela- 
tively pure clay bodies, having the shape of small 
basins, may represent deposition in a floodplain, 
such as the filling of an abandoned meander. 

The upper member of the Tuscaloosa formation in 
Moore County is considered unfossiliferous although 
is contains marine fossils down dip (P. M. Brown, 
personal communication) . This fact has led to the 
development of various theories about its environ- 
ment of deposition of which too little attention has 
been paid the source of the sedimentary kaolin beds 
in the updip f acies of the upper member. 

In regard to this fact, a residual clay is developed 
on Carolina Slate belt rocks directly underlying the 
upper member. It is felt that this residual clay is 
indicative of the source of the sedimentary clay in 
the upper member of the Tuscaloosa formation. If 
the crystalline rocks of the southeast were blanketed 
prior to Upper Tuscaloosa time, by residual kaolins, 
which were eroded and deposited during Upper Tus- 
caloosa time, this would explain the widespread oc- 
currence of sedimentary kaolins in the upper mem- 
ber of the Tuscaloosa formation. 


Norlh Carolina State Library 

The McKennis pit (see Plate 1, for location) is a 
typical residual kaolin deposit. The stratigraphic 
section exposed in this pit is as follows : 

Section of McKennis Clay Pit 

Recent Thickness 

5. Present day soil zone which extends down from 

the surface into unweathered gravel 4' 

Tertiary (Pinehurst formation) 

4. Gravel ._: 1' 

Cretaceous (Tuscaloosa formation, upper member) 

3. Pink and white mottled clayey sand 3' 

2. Basal gravel _._ 1' 

1. Kaolinitic clay containing quartz veins, still pre- 
serving the fine alternating graded bedding of the 
slates. (The relic bedding strikes north 45 degrees 
east and dips southeast at 30 degrees) 2' 

Base of section 

This locality was visited by Mr. E. F. Goldston, 
North Carolina State College, Department of Soils, 
at the request of the author. At the time of exami- 
nation, Mr. Goldston stated the following about the 
deposit : 

1. The Coastal Plain is too thick for the kaolin to 
have been formed in place by weathering after depo- 
sition of the Upper Tuscaloosa member and overly- 
ing sediments. 

2. A climate capable of producing this degree of 
weathering and leaching would, of necessity, have 
been warmer and had more rainfall than present. 

A section exposed on the north bank of Little 
River, where the Murdocksville road crosses the 
river, is as follows : 

Section of Little River 

Cretaceous (Tuscaloosa formation, upper member) 

4. Sandy clay 8' 

3. Basal gravel composed of quartz pebbles, ranging 
in diameter from 1 to 6 inches, in a mtarix of 
kaolinitic sand 2' 6" 

Triassic (Sanford formation) 

. 2. Sandy kaolinitic clay, developed on the Sanford 
formation grading downward into unweathered 

red sandstone 3' 6" 

1. Red sandstone 2' 

Base of section 

This section indicates that Triassic rocks as well 
as the Carolina Slate Belt were highly weathered 
and leached prior to deposition of the upper member 
of the Tuscaloosa formation. 

Occurrences of residual kaolin underlying the Tus- 
caloosa formation in Georgia suggest that the pre- 
Upper Tuscaloosa mantle was an extensive deposit 
because Munyan (1938) states, "Recently the writer, 

while mapping Cretaceous rocks (in Georgia) saw 
a number of contacts between the Tuscaloosa and the 
underlying crystalline rocks. The crystalline rocks 
were weathered to primary kaolin in many instances 
and could be identified as crystallines only by the 
presence of thin, but continuous quartz veins. The 
overlying rock could easily be identified as unaltered 
sediment. In no case observed did it appear that the 
weathering of the underlying crystalline rocks was 
due to leaching after the deposition of the sediment". 

From this evidence it is postulated that in pre- 
Upper Tuscaloosa time the Carolina Slate Belt and 
the Deep River Triassic basin were peneplained and 
subjected to intensive weathering and leaching un- 
der tropical conditions, producing a thick residual 
kaolinitic mantel. In order to prevent the mantel 
from being eroded away as fast as formed, the area 
was, of necessity, relatively flat. If a transgressing 
sea slowly inundated this peneplaned surface, it 
would be expected that the upper member of the 
Tuscaloosa formation would have been laid down in 
a shallow environmental basin under near shore con- 
ditions. Streams emptying into this basin during 
flood stage, would bring in sediments ranging in sizes 
from clay to gravel. As the flood subsided the 
sediments would become finer grained, explaining 
why some of the sediments contained graded bed- 
ding. Cross bedding would be expected in such an 

During times when the streams were not in flood 
stage, they would be carrying colloidal clay, which 
on entering the basin would slowly settle out as a 
thick viscous mass. The surface of the basin floor 
was probably irregular with more clay accumulating 
in the depressions than elsewhere. This explains 
why the clay beds pinch and swell. 

The next flood would bring in another slurry of 
coarse sediments which would be deposited on top 
of the clay beds. The colloidal clays would then act 
as highly viscous media allowing some of the sand 
grains from the overlying sediments to settle into 
the clay, while supporting the remainder. This ex- 
plains the presence of sand grains in otherwise pure 
kaolinitic clay. 

The coarse basal gravel of the upper member of 
the Tuscaloosa formation was probably derived from 
quartz veins which intruded the Carolina Slate Belt. 
The quartz could have been brought in by streams, 
however, it has been noted, in many places in Moore 
County, underlain by rocks of the Carolina Slate 
Belt, that the surface of the ground is covered by a 
lag pavement of vein quartz. If areas covered by 
these lag gravels were exposed to wave action of 
an advancing sea, this action could rapidly produce 


a deposit similar to the basal conglomerate of the 
Upper Tuscaloosa member. As previously noted, 
the basal gravel is thin, variable in thickness, and in 
places totally absent. Pettijohn (1957, p. 244) states 
"blanket conglomerates . . . were deposits of gravel 
spread out by an advancing or transgressive beach. 
These deposits are notably thin and patchey; low 
areas may collect several tens of feet of gravel 
whereas the intervening high areas may be devoid 
of any gravel accumulation". 

the upper member of the Tuscaloosa formation. This 
contact is an undulating line, indicating a rough 
erosional surface developed on the upper member 
of the Tuscaloosa formation before deposition of the 
Pinehurst formation. This contact can be recog- 
nized at numerous localities in the county ; one of the 
better of these is exposed in the west bank of high- 
way U.S. 15-501 at the Vass road overpass, approxi- 
mately one and one-half miles southeast of Carthage. 
This section is as follows : 



Gravel beds overly the upper member of the Tus- 
caloosa formation in Moore County. The gravel 
deposits near Lakeview were described by Stephen- 
son (1912) and correlated with the Lafayette forma- 
tion of Pliocene age. Bryson (1930) described a 
number of gravel pits in Moore County and stated 
that the exposures are of one group and probably 
belong to the Lafayette formation. In the Halifax 
area, Mundorf (1946) recognized graven deposits 
which he called unclassified high level gravel. He 
postulated they were probably of differing ages 
ranging from Cretaceous to Tertiary. Richards 
(1950) recognized high level gravels in Moore 
County, but did not attempt to define the distribu- 
tion or suggest the age. Reinemund (1955) mapped 
high level gravels in Moore County and stated that 
they covered almost a fifth of the area shown in his 
geologic map. He considered all of the Coastal Plain 
deposits high level gravel, not recognizing the upper 
member of the Tuscaloosa formation which directly 
underlies the gravel throughout the county. 

The gravels are unfossiliferous and the exact age 
is not known. In the northeastern part of the State, 
similar deposits unconformably overlie the late Mio- 
cene Yorktown formation (P. M. Brown, personal 
communication). Although regarded as Pliocene 
age by Stephens et. al. it is conceivable that these 
surficial gravels could be Late Miocene, Pliocene, or 
Early Pleistocene age. 

Stratigraphy: During this investigation it was 
found that the so-called high-level gravels could be 
recognized and mapped as a stratigraphic unit in 
areas covered by Coastal Plain sediments. It is 
therefore proposed that this unit be called the Pine- 
hurst formation after the town of Pinehurst which 
is underlain by these sediments. The type section 
for the formation is located in the D. H. Wilson sand 
pit on the north side of Highway 211, approximately 
one and one-half miles southeast of the center of the 
town of West End. 

The Pinehurst formation unconformably overlies 

Section along Highway 15-501 at Vass Overpass 

Tertiary (?) (Pinehurst formation) Thickness 

2. Brown limonite stained, faintly bedded, coarse 
sand; containing lenses of well rounded quartz 
gravel, ranging in size from one-half to two inches 

with interspersed kaolinitic clay balls 10' 

Cretaceous (Tuscaloosa formation, upper member) 

1. White kaolinitic clay, pink mottled at the top 2' 

In Moore County the Pinehurst formation is a 
nonfossiliferous sand and gravel which caps all of 
the higher Coastal Plain hills in central and western 
Moore County. It has not been observed resting 
directly on sediments older than the Upper Tusca- 

The Pinehurst formation is exposed on top of the 
high hill at Carthage, at an elevation of over 500 
feet. From this elevation it slopes to the southeast, 
at first steeply, becoming more gentle down dip 
until it reaches an elevation of about 350 feet in the 
southern part of the county. 

The gravels on the hill at Carthage range in thick- 
ness from 3 to 7 feet and consist of a coarse-brown, 
iron-stained sand containing lenses of quartz peb- 
bles, ranging in diameter from 2 to 5 inches. Down 
dip the formation gradually thickens until, in the 
southern part of the county, it is over 150 feet thick. 
Bedding and composition rapidly change from coarse 
sands, containing pebble beds and lenses, at Car- 
thage to festooned cross-bedded sands and fine grav- 
els down dip. 

The formation usually is brown or greyish brown 
in color. It is often iron stained, and sometimes 
cemented with either hematite or limonite, hematite 
being the more common. Hematite concretions occur 
within the formation. The outside of these struc- 
tures are coated with sand grains. Although they 
are usually oval or spherical in outline, some have 
a stair step appearance from preservation of relic 
bending planes. When broken they are oftentimes 
hollow and contain hematite powder which local 
folklore attributes as the source of red Indian war 
paint. Sometimes this hematite occurs in lumps 


and when a concentration is shaken emits a sound, 
from the hematite hitting the walls of the structure ; 
thus giving rise to the common name "rattle rock". 
Hematite and occasionally limonite is precipitated at 
the base of the formation in deposits varying from 
a few inches to over a foot in thickness. 

Kaolinitic clay balls are commonly interspersed 
throughout the formation. They usually occur along 
prominent bedding planes and in gravel beds. Heavy 
minerals are much more common in this formation 
than in the underlying Tuscaloosa, which is relatively 
devoid of heavy minerals. They are concentrated 
along bedding planes and are rarely dispersed 
through the sediment. 

The upper surface of these deposits is covered by 
olive-brown silt and fine sand ranging in thickness 
from one to five feet. These deposits are attributed 
to wind action in the form of winnowing. The 
process was probably aided in the recent past by 
denudation of the area by forest fires, but is still 
going on today as can be attested to by observing 
sparsely vegetated areas on a windy day. 

The Pleasant sand pits, between Pinehurst and 
Aberdeen, contain sediments dissimilar to the other 
parts of the Pinehurst formation. These deposits 
consist of water laid, well-sorted, thin-bedded, fine 
white sands; thin, fissle-bedded, grey silts and 
plastic clays ; and occasional micro-cross bedded fine 
sands. These deposits are covered by approximate- 
ly four feet of wind blown silt and fine sand. 

Because of the thinness of the Pinehurst forma- 
tion, the major streams have cut the deposit leaving 
it capping hills along stream divides and draping 
down the hillsides. These sand and gravel capped 
hills are commonly referred to as the "Sand Hills 
Region". Many times the tops of the hills are con- 
cordant, flat, and slope gradually to the southeast. 
These might represent preservation of original con- 
structional topography. 

Environment of Deposition: Lithology and ab- 
sence of fossils suggest the Pinehurst formation is 
nonmarine. However, it could have, in part, been 
deposited in a transition zone. In such a zone con- 
ditions for preservation of fossils are poor; and, if 
preserved, they could have been subsequently leach- 
ed away. 

The sediments were derived from a nearby source 
and carried by vigorous streams in a youthful stage 
of development, as indicated by the beds and lenses 
of coarse gravels in the coarse sands around Car- 
thage. A change of environment from stream to 
deltaic is indicated by comparing these deposits with 
the cross bedded, finer grained sands and gravels 

down dip. This change is further suggested by the 
gradient of the formation which is steepest at Car- 
thage, becoming rapidly less steep, almost flat, down 
dip. The beds of coarse gravel at Carthage and 
change in gradient down dip also indicates that one 
of the major streams emptying into the basin of 
deposition was located in the general vicinity of 
Carthage. As sedimentation progressed, deltas grew 
outward from the mouths of streams emptying into 
the basin, explaining why the formation thickens 
down dip. 

An interesting feature of the Pinehurst formation 
is the presence of kaolinitic clay galls. Although 
clay galls were occasionally observed in Upper Tus- 
caloosa outcrops, they are universally present in the 
Pinehurst formation. Whether the kaolinite was 
derived from erosional outliers of the underlying 
Tuscaloosa formation or from weathered Carolina 
Slate Belt rocks is open to debate. Petti John (1949) 
attributes the formation of clay galls to the dessica- 
tion and breaking up of mud cracks. Mud cracks 
could have easily formed on mud flats along deltaic 
distributaries and been incorporated in the sedi- 
ments when these mud flats were inundated during 

The final product of sedimentation was a series of 
coalescing deltas, creating a blanket deposit of cross 
bedded unconsolidated sand and gravel. The fine 
sands and clays exposed in the Pleasant sand pits 
were probably deposited in a small fresh water lake, 
created by blocking of one of the distributaries. 

Post depositional wind action in the form of win- 
nowing produced the fine sands and silts which cover 
the Pinehurst formation in many places. 

Structure: The Coastal Plain sediments dip to 
the southeast at six to eight feet per mile. This 
angle of dip is somewhat steeper than the average 
for the Coastal Plain, but these are deposits along 
the ancient coastal margines and should dip more 
steeply. No faulting has been observed in Coastal 
Plain sediments even though slicken-sides were ob- 
served in Upper Tuscaloosa clays in a borrow pit on 
the west side of Highway U.S. 1, at the southern city 
limits of Aberdeen. 

Erosional unconformities occur at the base of the 
lower member of the Tuscaloosa formation and at 
the base of the Pinehurst formation. The existence 
of an unconformity at the base of the upper member 
of the Tuscaloosa formation is suggested by the pres- 
ence of what appears to be a weathered zone develop- 
ed on top of the underlying lower member. A basal 
conglomerate in the upper member also suggests a 
break in the sedimentation cycle. 



Other Deposits 

Terrace Gravels: Although Reinemund (1955) 
mapped four levels of terrace gravels, this author 
only recognized and mapped three levels in Moore 
County. The lowest of the terraces (Terrace No. 1, 
Plate I) is found as scattered remnants along Aber- 
deen Creek, Little River, and Crane Creek. Sedi- 
ments underlying this terrace level consists of iso- 
lated patches of sand and gravel at elevations from 
ten to fifteen feet higher than present floodplains. 
It is light tan-colored coarse sand and well rounded 
gravel. The gravel fraction is composed predomi- 
nately of quartz with some Carolina Slate Belt frag- 
ments. The gravel is somewhat variable in size, 
ranging in diameter from 1 to 3 inches. 

The most extensive of the terrace deposits (Ter- 
race No. 2, Plate I) occurs from 20 to 30 feet above 
present floodplains. It is the only terrace level 
which has developed to any extent on the crystalline 
rocks of the Carolina Slate Belt. This level occurs 
along Cabin Creek, north of Robbins, and along the 
length of Deep River. The terrace deposits consist 
of yellow-brown fine sands and clayey sand with 
occasional interbedded silts and fine gravel. The 
gravels are one-quarter to one-half of an inch in 
diameter with some ranging upward to over one 
inch. These deposits are usually covered by 12 to 
18 inches of coarse silt and fine sand. 

The highest of the stream terraces (Terrace No. 
3, Plate I) , occurs at elevations of 65 to 70 feet above 
present floodplains. It is only found along Deep 
River east of Glendon and Little River north of Mt. 
Pleasant. Terrace deposits underlying this level are 
composed almost entirely of gravel with sand and 
clay filling the interstices. Rare thin interbeds of 
silty clay are present in the deposit. The subangular 
to rounded gravels are composed of approximately 
70 per cent quartz and 30 percent Carolina Slate 
Belt rocks. The sand fraction is composed mainly 
of coarse, angular, quartz grains with occasional 
feldspar grains. 

Soils developed on these deposits have a distinc- 
tive red color. The "B" soil horizon is a maroonish- 
red sand loam, whereas, the "A" horizon is a red- 
dish-brown silty loam. 

The three levels of river terraces indicate three 
periods of downcutting and stream aggradation, 
followed by deposition of alluvial sediments in the 
valleys. Therefore, the highest of these deposits is 
the oldest ; the lowest is the youngest with each suc- 
cessive period of cutting lowering the stream and 
bringing it closer to the present base level. The 
periods of aggradation were probably caused by a 
drop in a sealevel ; the subsequent deposition by ris- 

ing sealevel. 

The river terrace deposits in North Carolina have 
been regarded in the literature as Pleistocene age. 
Successive sets of terraces were supposedly formed 
due to alternating glaciation and melting producing 
a rise and fall in sealevel. The terraces in Moore 
County do not contain fossils and have not been 
traced into known Pleistocene deposits; therefore, 
their age determination is left to conjecture. 

Alluvium: The alluvium filling present stream 
valleys consists predominately of chocolate-brown 
and greyish-brown silt with some light and lark 
grey organic clays. It is conspicuously absent in 
those parts of the county underlain by the Carolina 
Slate Belt. However, it is usually present along 
streams flowing over much of the Triassic basin 
and Coastal Plain. The presence or absence of 
alluvium is determined by the relative resistance to 
erosion or the rocks underlying the streams. 


Pyrophyllite is a hydrous alminum silicate classi- 
fied as a high alumina mineral. Its formula is 
Al 2 3 .4 Si0 o .H o and consists of 66.7 percent 
Si0 2 , 28.3 percent A1 2 3 and 5.6 percent H 2 0. It is 
used in the manufacture of ceramics, paint, rubber, 
insecticides, roofing, and paper. Its major produc- 
tion goes into ceramic products and mineral filler. 
Moore County contains the largest pyrophyllite ore 
reserves in the United States. This mineral has been 
mined near Glendon for over a hundred years. 

The pyrophyllite at Glendon was originally 
thought to be talc, until Emmons (1856) reported 
that it contained aluminum. He called it agalman- 
tolite, a soft material consisting chiefly of pyro- 
phyllite used in the Orient for making carvings. In 
addition he described the quarry at Hancock's Mill 
(Glendon) at some length. Brush (1862) analyz- 
ed material from Hancock's Mill and concluded that 
it was pyrophyllite. Pratt (1900) discussed the 
occurrence of pyrophyllite at Glendon and described 
Phillips, Womble, Rogers Creek, and other deposits. 
He noted that the pyrophyllite was often silicified 
and occurred in iron breccia which merges into pyro- 
phyllite schist. Stuckey (1928) investigated the 
pyrophyllite deposits of Moore County and discussed 
their location, size, mode of occurrence, origin, and 
economic possibilities. 

Pyrophyllite Mines and Prospects 

Pyrophyllite deposits occur in four areas in Moore 
County ; namely, north of Glendon, southeast of Hal- 


lison, southwest of Robbins, and on Cabin Creek 
near the Montgomery-Moore county line. Eight 
pyrophyllite mines and prospects are located on the 
Glendon fault from McConnell northeast to the 
county line. This area contains the largest number 
of deposits in the county. Two pyrophyllite mines 
are located on the Robbins fault, south of Robbins. 
Both of these deposits are at present being mined. 

McConnell Prospect : The McConnell prospect lies 
approximately 0.5 of a mile northeast of the village 
of McConnell. The pits are now grown over, but the 
dumps contain sericite schist and foliated pyrophyl- 
lite. Highly sheared sericitized felsic tuff, in part 
silicified, is exposed along an access road, west of 
the prospect. Exposures available at the time of 
investigation indicate the shear zone of the Glendon 
fault in this area is only about forty feet wide and 
the mineralized zone approximately ten feet wide. 

Jackson Prospect: The Jackson prospect lies on 
the south side of Deep River approximately three 
miles northeast of the McConnell prospect. The 
shear zone of the Glendon fault in this area is about 
200 feet wide. The deposit is located on the fault 
contact between andesitic tuff to the northwest and 
slates to the southeast. Two prospect pits have been 
put down to a depth of about 8 feet. They expose 
white foliated sericite ; however, no pyrophyllite was 

Bates Mine: The Bates mine is located on the 
northeast bank of Deep River approximately two 
miles northeast of the Jackson prospect. Stuckey 
(1928) stated that this mine was prospected in 1903 
and a mill constructed in 1904. The mine was op- 
erated until 1919 at which time it closed due to lack 
of quality ore. 

The rock is sheared and mineralized in a zone 150 
feet wide, along the Glendon fault. The hanging 
wall to the northwest is composed of andesite tuff; 
the footwall to the southeast is composed of slate. 
The pyrophyllite is developed in a band, about three 
feet wide in the area of major displacement of the 
fault zone and grades into sericite schist on either 
side. The ore zone strikes north 70 degrees east and 
dips northwest at 80 degrees. 

Phillips and Womble Mines: The Phillips and 
Womble mines are separated from each other by the 
Siler City-Glendon road, and lie approximately two 
miles northwest of Glendon. These mines were map- 
ped by plane table and alidade at a scale of one inch 
equals 50 feet (see Plate 2) during the field investi- 
gation for this report. 

The Glendon fault is exposed for approximately 

1800 feet along strike in active and abandoned mine 
workings. The ore body lies in the shear zone of the 
fault and dips to the northwest at an average angle 
of 65 degrees. The ore body is lenticular in outline 
and pinches and swells, but is considerably less in 
the pinches. Pyrophyllite has also been developed 
along minor displacements parallel to the main fault. 

White Mine : The White Mine is located on Rogers 
Creek approximately 0.8 of a mile northeast of the 
Womble mine. The ore body is contained between 
the Glendon fault on the southeast and a secondary 
reverse fault on the northwest. The ore body is 
lenticular in outline and dips to the northwest at an 
angle of 60 degrees. It is exposed along strike in 
the pit for 375 feet. Recent investigation indicates 
that the ore body continues to the southwest for a 
considerable distance. To the northeast it is not 
traceable beyond the mine. An exposure along the 
southwest wall of the pit reveals relatively unaltered 
rock overthrusting the ore body. The direction of 
movement along this fault was toward the southeast, 
indicating that the ore body might be overthrust to 
the northeast. The country rock surrounding the 
deposit is interbedded slate and andesitic lithic tuff 
and is stratigraphically in the gradational contact 
zone between the andesitic tuff and slate units. The 
contact between mineralized rock and unaltered rock 
is unusually sharp being gradational for only a few 
inches or at the most a few feet. 

Jones Prospect : The Jones prospect lies approxi- 
mately one and four tenths miles northeast of the 
White mine. Surface exposures indicate that the 
rock in this area is highly sheared. Prospect pits 
reveal foliated pyrophyllite and masses of sericite 
schist containing chloritoid. The general size of 
the deposit could not be discerned. As Stuckey 
(1928) pointed out, the pyrophyllite is considerably 
iron stained. This staining is probably caused by 
weathering of chloritoid and might not persist with 

Currie Prospect: The Currie prospect is located 
almost on the northern county line, one mile east of 
the Jones prospect. This prospect lies east of the 
Glendon fault. The rock in this area is slate, in 
places, sheared to a sericite schist. Although 
Stuckey (1928) reported pyrophyllite occurred at 
this deposit, none could be found during this investi- 
gation. The old prospect pits are covered with over- 
growth and reveal little about the deposit. 

Standard Mineral Company Mine : The Standard 
Mineral Company mine is situated two and one- 
fourth miles southwest of Robbins. This deposit was 


discovered in 1918, by Mr. Paul Gerhart, and min- 
ing commenced soon thereafter. This operation is 
the only pyrophyllite mine in the state worked under- 
ground. Ore is at present being removed from the 
eighth level, about 400 feet below the surface. 

The pyrophyllite zone is exposed in the mine pit 
for over 1300 feet continuing beyond the area map- 
ped (see Plate 3). The ore body dips northwest at 
50 degrees to 70 degrees and lies in a zone of compli- 
cated reverse faulting. In places this faulting has 
repeated the pyrophyllite zone, making the mine- 
able ore body as much as 150 feet wide. The north- 
eastern half of the deposit is offset to the northwest 
by cross faulting. The ore body is surrounded by 
slate which has been sericitized for as much as 300 
to 400 feet on either side of the deposit. 

Dry Creek Mine : The Dry Creek mine is located 
along the strike of the Robbins fault and lies two 
miles southwest of the Standard Mineral Company 
mine. The ore is exposed in two pits located 500 
feet apart. It has developed along two thin parallel 
shear zones (see Plate 5). Ore bodies exposed in 
the southern pit lie to the northwest of the strike of 
the northern pit, indicating that the mineralized 
zone is offset by cross faults. The ore bodies pinch 
and swell along the strike of the faults, and rarely 
exceed 20 feet in width. The county rock is highly 
sericitized slate. 

Ruff Mine : The Ruff mine is located one and one- 
half miles southwest of Hallison. The ore body can 
be traced for over 180 feet. It occurs in a fault zone 
which strikes north 20 degrees east and dips north- 
west at 80 degrees. The southeastern limb of the 
ore body is displaced to the northwest by a cross 
fault which strikes north 45 degrees west and dips 
to the northeast at 75 degrees. The mineralized 
zone averages from 6 to 15 feet wide in the center, 
but narrows to the northwest and southeast, finally 
dying out along strike in these directions. The coun- 
try rock is an andesitic lithic tuff. 

Hallison Prospect : Pyrophyllite was discovered 
six tenths of a mile west of Hallison during the re- 
opening of an old gold mine (Stuckey 1928). At 
this locality several shallow pits have been dug along 
a quartz vein. The rock in contact with the quartz 
is a sericite schist containing a minor amount of 
pyrophyllite. The prospect is located in the shear 
zone of a north 70 degrees east trending fault, dip- 
ping northwest at 55 degrees. This fault forms the 
contact between felsic tuffs and slates. If any de- 
gree of mineralization took place in the slates along 
this fault there is a possibility of the existence of a 
workable deposit in the area. 

Sanders Prospect : The Sanders prospect is locat- 
ed on a hill northwest of the intersection of Cotton 
Creek and Cabin Creek. The top of this hill has 
recently been bulldozed along strike of the deposit 
for approximately 250 feet. This cut exposes seri- 
citized slate which becomes sericite schist near the 
zone of maximum shear of a north 35 degrees east 
trending fault, dipping 70 degrees northwest. Seri- 
cite developed along this fault can be traced from 
Cotton Creek northeastward for about 1000 feet. 
Quartz veins have been emplaced in the center of 
this fault zone. Pyrophyllite is developed adjacent 
to the quartz veins, and where it occurs in direct 
contact with the veins, forms radiating rosettes. 
The pyrophyllite zone rarely exceeds three feet in 
width. Weathered pyrophyllite outcrops are highly 
iron stained; unweathered pyrophyllite is relatively 
free from staining but contains excessive chloritoid. 

Origin of Pyrophyllite 

The pyrophyllite deposits of Newfoundland (Bud- 
dington, 1919), North Carolina (Stuckey, 1928) and 
California (Jahns and Lance, 1950) all occur in 
rocks of volcanic origin. Buddington (1919), Stuck- 
ey (1928), Vhay (1937), Jahns and Lance (1950), 
and Broadhurst and Council (1953) have all regard- 
ed the origin of pyrophyllite as hydrothermal re- 

Hurst (1959) from a study of the mineralogy of 
Graves Mountain, Georgia believed that kyanite in 
the deposit formed under water deficient conditions 
at high temperature and pressure. The pyrophyllite 
is thought to have formed by the ingress of water 
along fractures partially converting kyanite to pyro- 

Zen (1961) from a study of samples collected from 
various pyrophyllite deposits of North Carolina 
tended to disregard the effect of hydrothermal re- 
placement solutions on the formation of the pyro- 
phyllite bodies. The presence of three phase min- 
eral assemblage of the ternary system A1 2 3 -H 2 0- 
SiO.„ in his estimation, indicated water acted as a 
fixed component. However, he further noted that 
to say water acted as a fixed component did not com- 
pletely imply the absence of a free solution phase 
(hydrothermal solutions), such a phase could have 
existed, but certainly did not circulate freely through 
the system destroying the buffering mineral assem- 

From a study of the occurrence of pyrophyllite in 
Moore County, certain similarities among the dif- 
ferent deposits became readily apparent. These de- 
posits are selective to rock type, occur in shear zones 


of major longitudinal faults, are lenticular in out- 
line, have similar mineralogies, and are zoned. 

Rock Types: The major pyrophyllite deposits in 
the county occur in the slate unit. The wall rock 
in the White mine consists of alternating beds of 
slate and andesitic tuff, whereas the wall rock of the 
Ruff mine is composed entirely of andesitic tuff. It 
is interesting to note that both these rocks are com- 
posed of easily sheared water laid, volcanic sedi- 
ments. No pyrophyllite deposits have been observed 
in either felsic tuffs or mafic tuffs. This is not meant 
to imply that pyrophyllite does not occur in these 
rocks, because it is reported in altered rhyolites in 
Newfoundland (Vhay, 1937), and in felsic tuffs in 
North Carolina (Stuckey, 1928) ; and Broadhurst 
and Council, (1953). On the other hand, the ability 
of the slates and andesitic tuffs to readily shear and 
develop schistosity must have been a factor in the 
formation of pyrophyllite. 

Faults : Stuckey (1928) recognized that the pyro- 
phyllite deposits of Moore County occurred in shear 
zones. During this investigation it was found that 
the pyrophyllite deposits north of Glendon and 
southwest of Robbins occur in the shear zones of the 
Glendon and Robbins faults. Although not studied 
in as much detail, the Sanders and Ruff deposits also 
occur in fault zones. 

Some of the pyrophyllite pits contain as many as 
four parallel northeast trending faults. The ore 
bodies in the White, Standard Mineral Company, and 
Dry Creek mines have all been offset by cross faults. 
Pyrophyllite has not developed along these cross 
faults indicating that they developed after pyrophyl- 

Low angle thrust faults were observed in the 
hanging wall of the Womble and White pits. Cross 
faults in the White pit do not offset the thrust sheet, 
indicating that thrusting occurred after cross fault- 

Outline of Pyrophyllite Bodies : In 1928 Stuckey 
noted that the pyrophillite bodies were lenticular in 
outline. This investigation revealed that the ore 
bodies pinch and swell along their whole length 
eventually dying out along strike. It also revealed 
that the bodies all trend northeast and pitch north- 
west, their development being controlled by major 
northeast trending, northwest dipping longitudinal 
faults. Subsurface information made available dur- 
ing this investigation indicates that the ore bodies 
not only pinch and swell along strike, but down dip 
as well. 

Mineralogy : The pyrophyllite deposits all contain 
the mineral pyrophyllite, sericite, kaolinite, quartz, 

hematite, and chloritoid. In addition, the fault zone 
at the Phillips, Womble and Snow properties contain 
small augen masses composed of pyrophyllite, topaz 
and diaspore. A sample of this material was col- 
lected at the Phillips property. Eldon P. Allen, a 
staff member of the Division of Mineral Resources, 
calculated percentages of each mineral present, using 
microscopic techniques, as follows : 27 percent pyro- 
phyllite, 36 percent diaspore, 37 percent topaz, and 
1 percent fluorite. Diaspore has also been reported 
at the Sanders property (Stuckey, personal com- 

The only crystalline radiating phyrophyllite ob- 
served was in contact with vein quartz at the Sanders 
Property. Fluorite crystals occur in the vein quartz 
intruding the fault zone at the Phillips Property. 
Pyrite cubes and chlorite masses are found in the 
sericitized wall rock at this site. The pyrite cubes 
are invariably coated by a tissue thin film of quartz, 
even though the host rock is not silicified. The pyrite 
cubes on the hanging wall side of this deposit have a 
rhombic dodechedral face which is absent in the 
cubic crystals of the footwall. 

Silicification is prevalent at the Phillips, Wom- 
ble, Snow, Dry Creek, and Standard Mineral Com- 
pany mines. Solutions which brought in this silica 
in places also introduced copper and gold. Silicified 
rock in the hanging wall of the Womble pit is 
stained with azurite and malachite. Silicified rock 
in the hanging wall of the Standard Mineral Com- 
pany's pit contains gold which was mined before 
pyrophyllite was discovered. 

Zoning : Each of the pyrophyllite deposits observ- 
ed in Moore County is zoned. Zoning was first noted 
by Broadhurst and Council (1953) , p. 9) who stated : 
"A large deposit can be divided into three arbitrary 
units : a very siliceous footwall, a highly mineralized 
zone, and a sericitic hanging wall". 

The outer zone, surrounding the deposits, is a 
highly sheared country rock, enriched with hematite, 
chlorite, and chloritoid, which rapidly grades into 
unaltered rock away from the deposit. The contact 
between the outer and middle zones is sometimes 
exceptionally sharp, and occasionally cuts across the 
regional schistosity. The second or middle zone is 
a sericite schist still exhibiting faint relic beddings 
and containing minor chloritoid. This middle zone 
contains silicified bodies and, in the Phillips pit, 
chlorite bodies as well as abundant zones of pyrite 

The contact between the middle and inner zones 
is exceedingly gradational and poorly defined. The 
inner zone is always composed primarily of pyro- 
phyllite with some sericite and minor chloritoid. 


The highest grade pyrophyllite always occurs in the 
center of this zone in the area of maximum shearing. 
Schistosity increases toward the center of the inner 
zone, which is eventually displaced by faulting. 
These fault planes are almost invariably intruded by 
quartz veins. 

Several generalizations can be made about zoning 
in the pyrophyllite bodies. These are: Shearing 
increases inwardly until a zone of rupture is reached, 
the amount of pyrophyllite decreases outwardly, the 
amount of chloritoid increases outwardly, and seri- 
cite is best developed in the middle zone and de- 
creases both inwardly and outwardly. Therefore, 
the zoning in these deposits may be classified as: 
1. An outer magnesian and iron enriched zone; 2. 
A potassium or alkali zone; and 3. A high alumina 

Discussion and Conclusions : The bulk chemical 
composition of the pyrophyllite deposits is essentially 
the same as that of the country rock. All of the 
chemical elements present in the pyrophyllite de- 
posits are present in the country rock, with the ex- 
ception of fluorine, copper and gold. These elements 
are associated with quartz veins and silicified zones 
and were obviously brought in from an outside 
source. The pyrophyllite deposits could have formed 
in place, with either addition or subtraction of chem- 
ical elements, if the elements were properly segre- 
gated and recrystallized into new minerals. A pos- 
sible sequence of events in the formation of pyro- 
phyllite deposits might be as follows : 

1. Intensive folding and low grade regional meta- 
morphism accompanied by faulting. 

2. Establishment of a temperature water pres- 
sure gradient across the shear zone, with high tem- 
perature and pressure in the center diminishing 
toward the sides. This would cause growth of the 
lower temperature and pressure minerals chlorite, 
chloritoid and hematite in the outer zones; the 
higher temperature and pressure mineral sericite 
in the middle zone ; and the highest temperature and 
pressure minerals pyrophyllite, diaspore and topaz 
in the central zone. Water vapor within the system 
would give the individual iron mobility to move in 
or out, as the case may be, causing previously exist- 
ing minerals to be replaced selectively. 

3. Invasions of quartz veins, accompanied by 
silicification and introduction of fluorite, copper car- 
bonates, gold and pyrite as a separate event. In 
addition, at the Sanders prospect, the quartz veins 
caused recrystallization of the pyrophyllite in con- 
tact with the veins. 

4. Removement along many of the faults, accom- 
panied by shearing of the quartz veins. 

5. Cross faulting. 

6. Minor overthrusting in the areas around the 
Womble and White pits. 


Mode of Occurrence : Many of the gold mines in 
Moore County were originally worked as placers. 
Later, as mining deleted the original stream concen- 
tration, mines were opened in the primary ore veins. 
The largest number of these deposits occur in highly 
sheared felsic tuffs on the northwest side of the 
Robbins fault along Cabin Creek. 

Some of the ore occurs in rich quartz veinlets. 
However, the majority is disseminated throughout 
the country rock on either side of the veins. The ore 
bodies usually strike northeast and dip northwest 
parallel to regional schistosity. 

Orthoclase feldspars have been observed in some 
quartz veins suggesting that they were emplaeed at 
high temperature. Pardee and Park (1948) con- 
sidered the gold lodes of the southeast as high tem- 
perature deposits formed at considerable depth. 
They suggested that they were emplaeed during the 
orogony which occurred at the close of the Carbon- 
iferous period. 

Gold Mines 

Clegg Mine: The Clegg mine is located one and 
one-half miles west of Robbins. It was originally 
operated as an open cut mine, but sometime after 
1900, two shafts were sunk on the ore vein. The 
main or Gerhardt shaft reached a depth of 128 feet 
and the second shaft reached an estimated depth of 
over 110 feet. The ore was ground on Chilean mills 
and the gold recovered by passing it over riffle 
boxes. These boxes were eventually replaced by 
copper plates. 

The deposit strikes north 25 degrees east and dips 
northwest at 75 degrees. The gold is disseminated 
throughout an ore zone 12 feet wide. The country 
rock is a felsic tuff sheared to sericite schist. The 
ore body contains a network of small quartz veinlets 
and is cross cut by reportedly barren quartz veins. 

Wright Mine : The Wright mine lies approxi- 
mately 150 feet northeast of the Clegg Mine. Prior 
to 1862, a shaft of unknown depth was sunk on this 
property. A second shaft was completed by J. W. 
Wright to a depth of 60 feet before the mine was 
closed in 1912. After grinding the ore on Chilean 
mills, the gold was recovered in riffle boxes. 


The ore vein at this mine is a continuation of the 
vein found at the Clegg mine, and was reported to 
vary in width from 11 to 20 inches. The ore is 
disseminated through, what appears to be, highly 
manganese stained fault gouge. 

Cagle Mine : The Cagle mine is located 1500 feet 
southeast of the Clegg mine. The date this mine 
was first opened is not known, but it is thought to 
have been' operated in 1865 by Charley Overton. 
The mine operated sporadically until about the turn 
of the century, when it was closed. An attempt to 
de,water the old workings was made in 1906, but 
since that time the mine has laid dormant. 

The first shaft, an inclined shaft, reached a depth 
in excess of 171 feet ; a second shaft, approximately 
50 feet southwest of the first reached a depth of 
265 feet ; and a third shaft, further southwest, reach- 
ed a depth of 180 feet. The ore body was drifted at 
least 200 feet southwest of the third shaft. A cut 
extends approximately 300 feet along strike north- 
east of the first shaft. Six open cuts along the vein 
were also mined to an average depth of 30 feet. 

The center of the ore body is occupied by a blue 
grey quartz vein, approximately 30 inches wide, 
containing a large quantity of disseminated pyrite. 
The gold is dispersed through the quartz as well as 
the country rock, making the total thickness of the 
ore zone approximately 60 inches. Assays ran from 
$4.14 gold and $0.13 silver to $7.54 gold and $1.10 
silver in some rich chutes (Nitze and Hanna 1896). 
The ore body strikes north 27 degrees east and dips 
to the northwest at 50 degrees. 

Chilean mills were originally employed to grind 
the ore. These were later replaced by stamp mills. 
At one time as many as 30 stamps were in operation. 

Red Hill Mine: The Red Hill mine lies approxi- 
mately 600 feet west of the Cagle mine. The original 
vertical shaft reached a depth of 100 feet. A drift 
was extended from this point until it intersected 
the side of the hill some 250 feet north 15 degrees 
east of the main shaft. The Red Hill mine was last 
operated in the early 1900's. No mill was ever erect- 
ed on the site. For this reason, the gold was hauled 
to the Clegg mine for grinding. 

It is reported that the gold was disseminated 
through the wall rock, which is a sericite schist 
derived from shearing of felsic tuff. The ore zone 
was some 60 feet wide. 

Allen Mine: The Allen mine is located on a hill 
500 feet southwest of the Red Hill mine. On this 
property a shaft was sunk to a depth in excess of 
40 feet. At the bottom of the shaft, drifts were 
driven out along strike, both to the northeast and 

southwest. A crosscut was driven into the west side 
of the hill, opposite the main shaft, but miraculously 
failed to intersect this shaft. 

The ore body is a silicified zone about 35 feet wide. 
It strikes north 25 degrees east and apparently is an 
extension of the Red Hill vein. 

Burns Mine : The Burns mine lies some 1050 feet 
southwest of the Allen mine. This mine was operat- 
ed during the 1890's. It was reopened in 1906, and 
again in 1915, at which time it remained in produc- 
tion for about 18 months before closing. 

The ore body strikes north 20 degrees east and 
dips northwest at 55 degrees. The ore is dissemi- 
nated through sericite and chlorite schists. A net- 
work of quartz stringers occur throughout the ore 
body. The thickness of the ore zone is not known, 
but its values averaged $3.00 to $4.50 gold per ton. 
The mine was worked as a series of open pits up to 
50 feet deep. 

The soft ore was easily ground on Chilean mills, 

, but the harder ore encountered at depth was difficult 

to grind. To combat this, a 10 stamp mill with 

bumping tables was installed in 1895 (Nitze and 

Wilkens, 1897). 

Brotvn Mine : The Brown mine lies in a sharp 
meander of Cabin Creek about 780 feet southwest 
of the Burns mine. It was worked as an open cut. 
This cut is about 350 yards long. A few shallow 
shafts or prospect pits have been put down to depths 
of less than 40 feet. The mine was last operated 
about 1905. 

Nitze and Hanna (1896) stated that the ore body 
was about three feet thick and relatively flat lying. 
They reported that the pay seam was a narrow vein 
of rich quartz. Some gold was disseminated through 
the country rock, a brecciated, silicified, sericitized, 
felsic tuff. The gold was extracted by passing the 
ground ore over riffle boxes charged with mercury. 

Shields Mine: The Shields mine is located some 
650 feet northwest of the Brown mine. It was op- 
erated about 1895 by Cash Shields. The mine con- 
sisted of an open cut and one shaft, the depth of 
which is unknown. The ore shoot was about 30 
inches wide and was a schistose sericitized mixture 
of rock and fine granular clay with numerous quartz 

Chilean mills were used to grind the ore and either 
riffle boxes or copper plates were used to collect the 

California Mine : The California mine or Califor- 
nia shaft is located in the extreme southwestern end 
of the Standard Mineral Company's pyrophyllite pit. 


This shaft was sunk to a depth of 75 feet by Peter 
Shamburger about 1896. The ore was of low yield 
and the mine soon closed. 

Dry Holloiv Placer Mine : The Dry Hollow Placer 
mine was operated along a small stream south of 
the Standard Mineral Company's pyrophyllite mine. 
Mr. Ashley Paris supposedly found a 3 ounce nugget 
in this stream sometime before 1896. The Creek was 
placer mined intermittently until 1907 at which time 
a stir mill was installed. The site of the mine is now 
covered by the pyrophyllite mine dumps. 

Jenkens Mine: The Jenkens mine is located ap- 
proximately 1300 feet southwest of the Standard 
Mineral Company's pyrophyllite mine. This mine 
was opened prior to 1865 and maintained intermit- 
tent production until 1890. In 1912 an attempt was 
made to reopen the mine by Charlie and Paul Ger- 
hardt. However, all that was accomplished was a 
successful dewatering of the shafts. 

Two shafts have been sunk on the ore vein, a 
highly silicified cream colored felsic tuff, 3 to 4 feet 
wide, locally known as crushed flint. The depth of 
the northeastern shaft is unknown. However, the 
southwestern shaft reached a depth of 85 feet. Three 
levels of drifts were supposedly driven along the 
strike of the ore body. The longest of these is 
located on the first level and extends about 300 feet. 
In addition to underground mining, the creek directly 
south of the shaft has been placer mined. 

Richardson Mine : The Richardson mine lies ap- 
proximately 1500 feet southwest of the Jenkens 
Mine. It is thought to have been first worked by the 
Marshall Mining Company about 1860. It was op- 
erated by Steward and Hewes in 1906. 

The ore body appears to be a continuation of the 
Jenkens vein. It is reported to be about six feet 
wide and consists of highly silicified tuff containing 
cross cutting quartz veins. The main vein strikes 
north 15 degrees east and is about six feet in width. 
In a distance of about one-fourth of a mile, nine 
shafts of unknown depths are located along strike 
of the vein at regular intervals. Drifts were report- 
edly worked along strike of the ore body at several 
levels. The mined ore was ground by Chilean mills 
and the gold recovered in riffle boxes charged with 

Monroe Mine : The Monroe mine is located one- 
half of a mile northwest of West Philadelphia. Be- 
fore the ore vein was located, Mill Creek and its 
tributaries were placer mined. After the discovery 
of the gold in situ, a mine was established and 
operated intermittently until 1900. 

The gold is dispersed through a quartz vein as 
well as the country rock on both sides of the vein, 
making the total thickness of the pay seam 30 inches. 
The ore body strikes north 60 degrees east and dips 
northwest at 48 degrees. 

Bell Mine : The Bell mine is located one-half of a 
mile west of Putnam. The mine was reported in 
production circa 1887 (Kerr and Hanna, 1887), but 
was abandoned in 1894 (Nitze and Hanna, 1896). 
Surface exposures indicate the country rock is seri- 
citized felsic tuff, which has evidently been altered 
near the ore body to a garnitiferous chlorite-sericite 
schist. The ore zone contains a small percentage of 
finely disseminated py rite, and intercalations of silic- 
eous seams from one eighth to four inches in width, 
as well as small calcite seams. It is four feet wide 
and strikes north 55 degrees east and dips 75 de- 
gress northwest. The ore is said to average $12.00 
per ton gold and $0.45 silver. A pay streak, four to 
eight inches thick is reported to be against the foot- 
wall. From one and one-half to two feet of this 
material was milled and yielded as much as 30 dol- 
lars gold per ton. The gold is leafy causing diffi- 
culty in an amalgamation of the ore (Nitze and 
Hanna, 1896). 

At present the mine workings consist of numerous 
open cuts and four open shafts of unknown depth. 
Nitze and Wilkens (1897) stated that the mine had 
been worked to a depth of 110 feet and for a length 
of 800 feet along strike. 

Ritter Mine : The Ritter mine or McDonald mine 
is located one-half of a mile northwest of McConnell. 
It was originally operated sometime prior to 1890, 
because at that time, it was reopened under the 
name Teisson mine and remained in production until 
1900. The ore body is a highly silicified and seri- 
citized felsic tuff about 3 feet wide striking north 
10 degrees east and dipping northwest at 30 degrees. 
Two shafts about 520 feet apart have been put down 
on the ore body. The depth of the northeast shaft 
is in excess of 100 feet ; the depth of the second shaft 
is unknown. During the 1800's the mine employed 
eight stamp mills to crush the ore. 

Donaldson Mine: The Donaldson mine, later 
known as the Cotton mine, lies four tenths of a mile 
southeast of the Ritter mine. During the late 1850's 
and early 1860's, it was worked as a placer. Later 
a shaft was sunk on the ore vein to a depth of about 
60 feet and a drift was driven to the southeast along 
strike for about 75 feet. 

The country rock is a highly sheared felsic lithic- 
crystal tuff. The gold is located in a quartz vein, 
approximately eight inches wide, as well as dissemi- 


nated in the country rock in the proximity of the 
vein, making the total thickness of the ore body 
about three feet. The quartz vein contains pink 
orthoclase feldspar phenocrysts which are sometimes 
stained with azurite and malachite ; the altered coun- 
try rock contains a considerable amount of chlorite. 


An abandoned copper mine is located one and one- 
half miles northeast of Glendon on the north side 
of the Haw Branch road. Two shafts have been put 
down at this mine. The northeastern shaft is at 
present open to 150 feet below the surface ; the sec- 
ond is caved. A trench about 50 feet long, 10 feet 
deep and 20 feet wide lies between the two shafts. 

The ore body is a highly silicified grey cherty rock 
which has been brecciated and replaced by feldspar, 
vein quartz and calcite. The ore body strikes north 
30 degrees east and dips northwest at 60 degrees. 
The thickness of the ore body could not be ascertain- 
ed, but it is estimated to be about 30 inches. Fault 
gouge and slickensides are apparent in the country 

The primary ore mineral appears to be cuprite, 
associated with bornite, azurite, and malachite ; with 
a gangue of calcite, chlorite, quartz and orthoclase. 
A sample of the ore was assayed by the Tennessee 
Copper Company and ran 0.85 percent copper, 0.02 
ounces gold per ton and 0.18 ounces silver per ton. 

Quality and Reserves 

Coal was discovered in the Deep River basin about 
the time of the Revolutionary War (Reinemund, 
1955) and has been sporadically mined since that 
time. The coal beds are limited to the Cumnock 
formation. The coal is bituminous except where it 
is locally metamorphosed by diabase dikes into an- 
thracite and natural coke. It has a high heating 
value, ranging from 12,000 to 14,000 B.t.u. The 
ash content is low, ranging from 5.8 to 15.9 percent. 
The sulphur content varies from 2 to 3 percent. The 
coal has been successfully used in locomotives, heat- 
ing plants, and steam power plants. 

Mining of the coals is complicated by thin 
steeply dipping coal beds, numerous faults, and in- 
trusives. The major advantages for mining this 
coal are a large local market and reduced shipping 
costs, which might allow it to compete with coal 
brought in from neighboring states. The most eas- 
ily mined parts of the coal basin lies between the 
Deep River and Gulf faults, where the coal reaches 

an average thickness of about 36 inches and dips 
at angles of less than 15 degrees. This area is also 
less affected by crossfaulting. (Reinemund 1955). 

Reinemund (1955) has calculated reserves at the 
Murchison mine at 496,000 short tons and at the 
Gardner mine at 426,000 short tons. The total re- 
serves in Moore County could run as high as 1,500,- 
000 short tons. Reinemund estimates that half this 
coal is recoverable. 

Coal Mines 

Murchison Mine: The Murchison mine lies two 
and four tenths miles northeast of Glendon, six 
tenths of a mile northeast of Deep River, and one 
mile west of the Deep River fault. Emmons recog- 
nized coal at the Murchison mine in his 1852 report, 
and stated that it is reported to be eight or nine 
feet thick. Coal was shipped from this mine during 
the Civil War. The mine was most actively operated 
between 1931 and 1936. At the end of this period 
the mine was closed because the owners wanted to 
sell the property and refused to extend the lease. 
The Cumnock coal bed exposed in the Murchison 
mine, consists of an upper bench 23.5 inches thick, 
a middle bench, 36 inches thick ; and a lower bench, 
2 inches thick (Reinemund 1955). 

Several coal pits and prospects are located on the 
outcrop of the Cumnock bed in the vicinity of the 
Murchison mine. One lies approximately six tenths 
of a mile northeast of the mine ; and three lie along 
the south side of the Norfolk and Southern Railroad, 
one mile south of the mine. The most southerly of 
these is a drift driven back into the coal bed. The 
coal bed outcrops along the south side of the railroad 
one half mile south 79 degrees west of these pros- 

Garner Mine : The Garner mine lies seven miles 
east of Glendon. In 1931 the mine was opened by 
McConnell and Phillips who operated it until 1933. 
After 1935, J. M. Mclvor took over and operated it 
for a short time (Reinemund 1955). Since then the 
mine has remained closed. In 1959, a few hundred 
yards north of the Garner mine, an attempt was 
made to strip mine the coal bed. At the time it was 
thought that the bed was relatively flat lying. How- 
ever, it was soon realized that the bed was dipping 
southeast at 19 degrees and the project was aban- 
doned, The Cumnock seam at the Gardner mine 
was 41 inches thick It consisted of two benches. 
The upper bench was 11 inches thick. The lower 
bench contained a two inch shale parting and con- 
sisted of an upper bed 15 inches thick and a lower bed 
17 inches thick (Reinemund 1955). 


Black Shale and Blackband 

Vilbrandt (1927) found that many of the black 
shales and blackband iron ores of the Cumnock 
formation, when heated in a closed system, would 
liberate petroleum and natural gas. His experi- 
ments indicated that the shales liberate from 11.4 to 
45.6 gallons of oil per ton and from 734 to 3260 cubic 
feet of gas. He estimated that an average yield 
would be 30 gallons per ton. Reinemund (1955) 
stated that this material as a whole, would yield less 
than 10 gallons of oil per ton. Such a low yield of 
petroleum would make it unprofitable to mine oil 
shale in the foreseeable future. 

In addition to oil, the shales contain amonium 
sulphate and calcium phosphate. Reinemund (1955) 
stated that nearly 100,000 tons of this material re- 
moved as a by-product of coal mining, has been sold 
to fertilizer manufacturers. 

Blackband from the Cumnock formation was 
mined on a limited scale for iron ore just after the 
Civil War. It was smelted at the old Endor Iron 
furnace southeast of Cumnock, Lee County (Reine- 
mund 1955). Generally speaking though, this mate- 
rial could only be of value as a by-product of coal 


The Millstone Grit, a quartz conglomerate in the 
Pekin formation along the northwestern border of 
the Deep River Triassic basin in Moore County, was 
extensively quarried prior to 1900 for millstones. 
A number of old quarries are located east and south- 
east of Hallison (see Plate 1 for locations). Inas- 
much as millstones are now rarely used, this rock 
might have value as an ornamental facing stone. 

An old brownstone quarry is located in the San- 
ford formation on Governors Creek, one and three 
tenths miles southeast of its juncture with Deep 
River. Several areas of brown sandstone have been 
observed in the Sanford formation northwest of 
White Hill. Brownstone was a popular building 
stone during the 1890's, but is no longer in vogue 
because it weathers and flakes within a few years. 

Sand and Gravel 
Pinehurst Formation 

The Pinehurst formation contains the most exten- 
sive deposits of sand and gravel in Moore County. 
It has been mined in the areas around Carthage, 
Eagle Springs, West End, west of Pinehurst and the 
Pleasant Sand Pit between Pinehurst and Aberdeen 
(see Plate 1 for location). 

The deposit becomes thicker and finer grained, 


containing less graven down dip. The coarse gravel 
at Carthage requires crushing before it can be used. 
However, in most places outside of the Carthage 
area, the gravels are rarely ever an inch in diamteter 
and do not require crushing. The sands of the 
Pleasant Sand Pit contain clay beds, and must be 
washed before marketing. 

In general, the deposits now being worked around 
Eagle Springs consist of iron stained, structureless, 
fine sand, overlying the gravels which might repre- 
sent wind deposits. This material is shipped with- 
out being washed or screened. 

Terrace Gravel 

The highest of the stream terraces along the Deep 
River has been worked in two places, one along the 
Deep River and the other north of Mount Pleasant. 
This coarse gravel oftentimes requires crushing be- 
fore it can be used, and is usually not thick enough 
to be of great economic importance. 

The sands of the middle terrace are widespread 
over the county, but are usually too thin to be of 
economic value. Material from this terrace is being 
worked for sand by the North Carolina State High- 
way Commission in an area one and one half miles 
southeast of Lakeview (see Plate 1 for location). 

Deposits of the lowest terrace level are being 
mined by the Becker County Sand and Gravel Com- 
pany along Little River in the extreme southeastern 
part of the county. Two large remnants of this ter- 
race level which might be profitably worked occur 
southeast and southwest of Lobelia (see Plate 1 for 
location) . 

Upper Member of Tuscaloosa Formation 

The basal gravel of the Upper member of the Tus- 
caloosa formation has not been worked because it 
usually contains too much overburden, and invari- 
ably contains kaolinitic clay which would have to be 
washed out before it could be marketed. 

The upper member of the Tuscaloosa formation 
contains lenticular shaped deposits of extremely 
white quartz sand. Unfortunately, these lenses are 
small and contain minor amounts of kaolinitic clay 
which would have to be removed before it could be 

Triassic Gravel 

A locality in the unnamed upper Triassic unit, 
which unconformably overlies the Sanford forma- 
tion northwest of Carthage is composed of a slightly 
cemented conglomerate. This conglomerate could 
possibly be utilized after crushing and screening. 

High Silica Quartz 

Vein Quartz 

Several large quartz veins have been mapped in 
the Carolina Slate Belt of Moore County. This 
quartz might be of value for making optical glass 
and metallic silicon. Even more important, it might 
be used as crushed aggregate for facing on decora- 
tive cement blocks, which have become popular in 
construction in the past few years. These quartz 
veins are described and located as follows : 

1. Three, quartz veins, the largest of which is 18 
feet across, striking north 65 degrees east and dip- 
ping northwest at 45 degrees one mile south of 
Spies on the road between Spies and West Philadel- 

2. A quartz vein 12 feet thick striking north 25 
degrees east and dipping northwest at 75 degrees 
on the road to Dover, one mile northwest of Dover ; 

3. A quartz vein 10 feet thick striking north 30 
degrees west and dipping vertically on the road to 
Dover, one half mile southeast of Dover; 

4. A large quartz vein striking north 75 degrees 
east and dipping northwest at 70 degrees on a north- 
east trending paved road, one half mile due east of 
Hancock Clay pit; and 

5. A quartz vein 15 feet thick striking north 10 
degrees east and dipping northwest at 50 degrees 
on the south bank of Crane Creek, two miles due east 
of Vass. 

Unconsolidated Quartz Sands and Gravels 

An analysis of surficial wind-blown sands in the 
uppermost part of the Pinehurst formation indicates 
that they might be used in the manufacture of glass, 
after washing to remove iron stains. A composite 
of two analyses of washed samples, taken from sands 
near Eagle Springs and the Pleasant Sand Pit at 
Aberdeen is as follows : Si0 2 97.5 percent, A1 2 3 1.25 
percent, Fe 2 3 0.125 percent (Broadhurst 1949). 

As previously noted the basal gravel of the Upper 
member of the Tuscaloosa formation has a bleached 
appearance and is not iron stained. This gravel is 
exposed in outcrop over a wide area along streams 
near Harris and south of Hill Crest. These gravels 
would undoubtedly be of high silica content, but are 
usually too thin and covered by too much overburden 
to be of value. 

Residual Kaolin in the Carolina Slate Belt 

The upper member of the Tuscaloosa formation 
in places overlies deeply weathered and kaolinized 
rocks of the Carolina Slate Belt. 

These residual kaolinite deposits are best develop- 
ed on one rock type, the slate unit. This was prob- 
ably due to the fact that the slate has a well develop- 
ed cleavage making it less resistant to weathering. 
The clays were preserved because they were covered 
and protected by the upper member of the Tusca- 
loosa formation. At present only three clay pits 
are being operated in this residium. 

However, an intensive search in the areas along 
the margins of the Coastal Plain, where the upper 
member of the Tuscaloosa formation directly over- 
lies the slate unit might reveal a number of these 

The three commercially operated clay pits are, 
from east to west, (see Plate 1, for location) the 
McKennis, Williams and McDuffy pits. 

McKennis Pit : The McKennis pit was worked on 
a small scale in 1940, and the clay was used in the 
filler trade (Broadhurst 1950). Clays developed 
from weathering of slates in this pit are unstained 
white to cream colored with a slight greenish cast. 
They are often cut by minor quartz veins, but appear 
to be entirely free from grit. These clays are re- 
ported to extend 20 to 50 feet below the surface. Iron 
staining increases with depth. 

Results from a series of tests run on clays from 
this pit by the Department of Engineering, North 
Carolina State College (Hart 1951, p. 52) are as 
follows : 

"General Physical Properties. 
Dry Color; white 
Visible Impurities: None 
Grinding: Easy. Soft, fine grained clay 
Wet Sieve Analysis: 0.5 percent retained on 100 mesh sieve. 

Plastic and Dry Properties 
Wet Color: White 
Plasticity: Good 
Extrusion Behavior: Good 
Water of Plasticity: 39.1 percent 
Drying Behavior: Fair. Slight drying cracks. 
Dry Transverse Strength: 124.0 lbs. per square inch. 
Dry Linear Shrinkage: 1.9 percent. 

Fired Properties. 

Rate of Firing: 300° Fahrenheit per hour 

Firing Behavior: Poor, Severe cracking and warping 

Steel Hardness: Cone 8 

Minimum Absorption: 15.1 percent 

Cone of Minimum Absorption: Cone 10 

Transverse Strength at C-10: 840.0 lbs. per square inch. 


Total Linear Shrinkage at C-10: 11.5 percent 
Firing Range: Not reached 
Vitrification Range: Not reached 
Pyrometric Cone Equivalent: Cone 26-Cone 27 
Fired Color: Cone 02-Cone 10: White" 

To see if material from this pit could be substi- 
tuted for kaolin in the manufacture of whiteware 
bodies, two samples were prepared, one of Avery 
kaolin and the other of clay from the McKennis pit. 
They were fired together with the following results : 

(1) The material from the McKennis pit "Lowers 
the maturing temperature by approximately three 

(2) Decrease the total linear shrinkage by 0.6 

(3) Slightly increases the resistance to thermal 
shock, and 

(4) Has little or no effect upon the color or trans- 
verse strength." (Hart, 1955, p. 72) . 

Williams Pit : The Williams pit is in all respects 
similar to the McKennis pit. The overlying Tusca- 
loosa formation has been stripped off an area ap- 
proximately 500 feet long and 200 feet wide, expos- 
ing the white clay beneath. The clay is reported by 
the owner, Mr. Williams, to vary in depth from 15 
to 25 feet, depending on weathering. Auger holes 
indicate the clay underlies several acres in this area. 
The major production is now used into the manufac- 
ture of buff burning brick. Clay from this pit was 
employed in the manufacture of brick used in res- 
toration of Tryon's Palace, a colonial governor's 
home at New Bern, North Carolina. (J. L. Stuckey, 
personal communication) . 

Material from this pit was tested by the U. S. 
Bureau of Public Roads (1960) for possible use as 
an asphalt filler. The clay was found to contain 10 
to 45 percent kaolin, 10 to 30 percent quartz and 45 
to 65 percent sericite. Because of high plasticity, 
low wet stability, and low wet strength caused by 
kaolin and sericite, the material was refused. 

McDuffy Pit: The McDuffy pit is similar to the 
other two pits. No information is available about 
depth or areal extent of this deposit. 

Other Clay in the Carolina Slate Belt 

Pottery Clay : Moore County contains five pottery 
manufacturers. The Moore County potters produce 
designs which are traditional of this region and 
which were probably brought over from England by 
the first settlers. In addition some produce designs 
copied from ancient Chinese vases. 

The potters obtain their clay locally from clay 
enriched subsoils developed on felsic tuffs. Such 
deposits are never extensive, but are sufficient for 
the local industry. 

Hancock Pit : The Hancock pit is located in the 
northwestern part of the county on Bear Creek, ap- 
proximately 1000 feet east of the Moore-Montgomery 
County line. The material in this pit appears to be 
a quartzose silt, derived from felsic tuff. At the pres- 
ent time, the pit is approximately 100 feet long and 
20 feet wide. The material is used in a blend to 
make buff brick (Mr. J. J. Hume, personal communi- 

Cagle Mine Clay: Broadhurst (1950, pp. 18-19) 
reported that white residual kaolin is exposed in 
workings at the Cagle gold mine, along Cabin Creek. 
He stated, "The deposit is traceable for nearly 125 
feet across strike and extends to a depth of 20 or 
more feet. About 200 feet east of the Creek similar 
material is exposed for a short distance along the 
county road, but was not observed in the creek be- 
tween the two areas of outcrop. The soft kaolin is 
fine-grained, light cream to white, and contains some 
fine grit. The harder semi-weathered material 
underlying and grading into the kaolins is a light 
tan greenish tuff . . . (which is) relatively soft and 
has a somewhat grey appearance indicating the pos- 
sibility of sericite being present". 

This material formed by weathering along a shear 
bone accompanying the Robbins Fault. Some of the 
kaolin appears to contain a considerable amount of 
sericite and might require beneficiation before it can 
be used. 

Sedimentary Clay in the Deep River Basin 

Claystone from the Deep River Triassic basin is 
extensively used in the manufacture of brick. Two 
such deposits have been noted in the Pekin forma- 
tion on the paved road between Harris and Highway 
N.C. 27. The first of these occurs eight tenths of a 
mile northwest of Harris and the second lies one and 
one tenth miles northwest of the first. They appear 
to be relatively thin and probably are of little eco- 
nomic value. 

The most promising deposit is exposed in a stream 
valley along the Eagle Springs road, approximately 
one and two tenth miles southwest of Eagle Springs. 
It is a light grey fissile shale over 10 feet thick and 
might be of economic value if the cost of removing 
overburden is not too great. Two other outcrops 
of clay shale occur in this general area, one located 
on the Eagle Springs road approximately two miles 


southwest of Eagle Spring and the other almost on 
the county line in the valley of a tributary of Drown- 
ing Creek, one and one tenth miles south 58 degrees 
east of Samarcand Manor. 

Sedimentary Kaolin in the Upper Member 
of the Tuscaloosa Formation 

The Upper Member of the Tuscaloosa formation 
contains sedimentary kaolin deposits similar to those 
mined in South Carolina and Georgia. These clays 
are exceedingly white in color. They are not appre- 
ciably iron stained, although they are usually dis- 
colored by secondary hematite near the surface of 
bedding planes and along joints and tension cracks. 

The clay beds are seldom continuous over a few 
hundred feet and are rarely over 8 feet thick. Mus- 
covite shards and quartz grains are universally 
present. Such impurities would probably have to be 
washed out of the clay before it could be utilized. 
If a deposit containing several clay lenses were dis- 
covered, it might be of economic value. 


The author would like to thank J. J. Hume for 
information about pyrophyllite mines and clay pits 
in Moore County. Fred Chappel made available a 
considerable amount of information concerning the 
Standard Mineral Company mine which greatly aid- 
ed in interpretation of this deposit. Mr. Neisom 
Moore located and gave invaluable information con- 
cerning gold mines in the Robbins area. Mr. Glen- 
don Reynolds located and gave information of his- 
torical value about the Ritter and Donaldson gold 
mines. Mrs. Jaques Busbee and Ben Owens were 

very informative on the growth and development 
of the local pottery industry. Reece Graham located 
a number of water wells for the author and provided 
him with their logs, greatly aiding in stratigraphic 

Sam D. Broadhurst was in charge of the field 
mapping program in the county, until January 1960. 
J. L. Stuckey, State Geologist, visited the area from 
time to time observing the progress of the field map- 
ping program and gave valuable comments and 
criticisms of the program as it progressed. The 
author is appreciative of the contribution of P. M. 
Brown, U. S. Geological Survey, who visited the 
area and furnished the author with his personal un- 
published data. S. D. Heron, Duke University, visit- 
ed the area and gave freely of his personal knowledge 
of the Coastal Plain deposits in the area. Edward 
Floyd, U. S. Geogological Survey, Gamma-ray log- 
ged a number of water wells in the county and made 
his information available to the author. 

E. F. Goldston, N. C. State College, Department of 
Soils, visited the area and gave valuable information 
concerning soil types and their relationship to inter- 
pretation of rock types. S. G. Conrad rendered 
valuable assistance by contour mapping the pyro- 
phyllite mines and by spending severay days in the 
field with the author during field mapping of the 
county. The author is grateful to Oscar B. Eckhoff 
who aided the author in compiling the base map of 
Moore County and assisted him in the field from 
July 1960 until March 1961. W. F. Wilson aided in 
mapping the pyrophyllite deposits and drafting the 
final geologic maps. Last, but not least, K. M. 
Drummond aided the author in the final field check- 
ing of the county, in drafting parts of the final geo- 
logic maps and in preparation of the final report. 





Photomicrographs of Typical Volcanic Rocks 


1. Felsic lithic crystal tuff, Lower Volcanic sequence. Diam. 2.5 
mm., crossed nicols. Broken lithic and crystal fragments in a 
groundmass of sericite, kaolinite, and cryptocrystalline quartz. 

2. Welded felsic lithic crystal tuff, Lower Volcanic sequence. 
Diam. 2.5 mm., plain light. Light colored lithic fragments in 
darker groundmass of devitrified glass, now composed of 
crytocrystalline quartz, sericite and kaolinite. 

3. Flow banding in rhyolite, Lower Volcanic sequence. Diam. 2.5 
mm., crossed nicols. Fine textured flow line composed of 
sericite and cryptocrystalline quartz with coarser grained ma- 
terial on either side composed of feldspar and quartz crystal- 
lites and spherulites in a groundmass of cryptocrystalline 
quartz, sericite and kaolinite. Note the poorly developed 
secondary lineation caused by slight shearing. 

4. Mafic lithic-crysta! tuff, Lower Volcanic sequence. Diam. 2.5 
mm., crossed nicols. Lithic fragments in a groundmass of 
chlorite. The small sperical masses are air bubbles. 

5. Sheared mafic lithic-crystal tuff, Lower Volcanic sequence. 

Diam. 2.5 mm., plain light. Augen shaped lithic and crystal 
fragments in a banded matrix of chlorite. 

6. Andesite lithic-crystal tuff, Lower Volcanic sequence. Diam. 
2.5., crossed nicols. Lithic fragments and small feldspar laths 
in a groundmass obliterated by hematite. 

7. Amygdaloidal andesite flow. Lower Volcanic sequence. Diam. 
2.5 mm., crossed nicols. Quartz amygdules in a groundmass 
obliterated by hematite. 

8. Slate exhibiting graded bedding. Volcanic-Sedimentary se- 
quence. Diam. 2.5 mm., crossed nicols. 

9. Graywacke of the type interbedded with slate, Volcanic-Sedi- 
mentary sequence. Diam. 2.5 mm., crossed nicols. Note the 
change in composition and partical size from bottom to top 
of the bed. 




Photographs of Typical Rock Outcrops 


10. Graywacke of the type interbedded with mafic tuff. Crop- 
ping out north-northeast of High Falls. 

14. "Millstone Grit" with carbonaceous weathered and leached 
zone at base / at Parkwood quarry. 

11. Glendon reverse fault (to left) and secondary parallel re- 
verse fault (to right) in south wall of White pyrophyllite mine. 
Note the drag folding. 

1 5. Carbonaceous beds near base of the lower member of the 
Tuscaloosa formation, overlain by sand and clay beds, at 
Nicks creek north of Murdocksville. 

12. View of McKennis clay pit, showing Coastal Plain sediments 
overlying slate weathered to kaolinite. 

16. Lower member of the Tuscaloosa formation at type locality, 

13. Slate, weathered to almost pure kaolinite, but retaining relic 
bedding, at McKennis clay pit. 

17. Cemented sandstone near base of the lower member of the 
Tuscaloosa formation, along Joes Fork Creek northeast of 




Photographs of Typical Rock Outcrops 


1 8. Contact between upper and lower members of the Tuscaloosa 
formation, at Hog Island. - Note the outlined basal gravel 
of the upper member. 

1 9. Typical exposure of the upper member of the Tuscaloosa 
formation, east of Southern Pines. Note the outlined len- 
ticular clay bed. 

20. Uncomformable contact between upper member of the Tus- 
caloosa formation and overlying Pinehurst formation, south 
of Carthage at Vass overpass. 

21. Pinehurst formation at type locality, D. H. Wilson sand pit 
southeast of West End. 

22. Lenticular interbeds of coarse gravel and sand in updip fades 
of the Pinehurst formation, at Carthage. 

23. Typical exposure of cross bedded, hematite stained sand and 
gravel of the Pinehurst formation at D. H. Wilson sand pit 
southeast of West. 

24. Fissle bedded lake silts in Pinehurst formation at Pleasant 
sand pit, Aberdeen. 


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North o.aie , y 


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